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Abstract This is the MySQL Tutorial from the MySQL 5.5 Reference Manual. For legal information, see the Legal Notices. For help with using MySQL, please visit the MySQL Forums, where you can discuss your issues with other MySQL


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MySQL Tutorial
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Preface and Legal NoticesThis is the MySQL Tutorial from the MySQL 5.5 Reference Manual.Licensing information—MySQL 5.5. This product may include third-party software, used underlicense. If you are using a Commercial release of MySQL 5.5, see the MySQL 5.5 Commercial ReleaseLicense Information User Manual for licensing information, including licensing information relating to third-party software that may be included in this Commercial release. If you are using a Community releaseof MySQL 5.5, see the MySQL 5.5 Community Release License Information User Manual for licensinginformation, including licensing information relating to third-party software that may be included in thisCommunity release.Licensing information—MySQL NDB Cluster 7.2. This product may include third-party software, usedunder license. If you are using a Commercial release of NDB Cluster 7.2, see the MySQL NDB Cluster7.2 Commercial Release License Information User Manual for licensing information relating to third-partysoftware that may be included in this Commercial release. If you are using a Community release of NDBCluster 7.2, see the MySQL NDB Cluster 7.2 Community Release License Information User Manual forlicensing information relating to third-party software that may be included in this Community release.Legal NoticesCopyright © 1997, 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.This software and related documentation are provided under a license agreement containing restrictionson use and disclosure and are protected by intellectual property laws. Except as expressly permittedin your license agreement or allowed by law, you may not use, copy, reproduce, translate, broadcast,modify, license, transmit, distribute, exhibit, perform, publish, or display any part, in any form, or by anymeans. Reverse engineering, disassembly, or decompilation of this software, unless required by law forinteroperability, is prohibited.The information contained herein is subject to change without notice and is not warranted to be error-free.If you find any errors, please report them to us in writing.If this is software or related documentation that is delivered to the U.S. Government or anyone licensing iton behalf of the U.S. Government, then the following notice is applicable:U.S. GOVERNMENT END USERS: Oracle programs, including any operating system, integrated software,any programs installed on the hardware, and/or documentation, delivered to U.S. Government end usersare "commercial computer software" pursuant to the applicable Federal Acquisition Regulation and agency-specific supplemental regulations. As such, use, duplication, disclosure, modification, and adaptation of theprograms, including any operating system, integrated software, any programs installed on the hardware,and/or documentation, shall be subject to license terms and license restrictions applicable to the programs.No other rights are granted to the U.S. Government.This software or hardware is developed for general use in a variety of information managementapplications. It is not developed or intended for use in any inherently dangerous applications, includingapplications that may create a risk of personal injury. If you use this software or hardware in dangerousapplications, then you shall be responsible to take all appropriate fail-safe, backup, redundancy, and othermeasures to ensure its safe use. Oracle Corporation and its affiliates disclaim any liability for any damagescaused by use of this software or hardware in dangerous applications.Oracle and Java are registered trademarks of Oracle and/or its affiliates. Other names may be trademarksof their respective owners.Intel and Intel Xeon are trademarks or registered trademarks of Intel Corporation. All SPARC trademarksare used under license and are trademarks or registered trademarks of SPARC International, Inc. AMD,
AbstractThis is the MySQL Tutorial from the MySQL 5.5 Reference Manual.For legal information, see the Legal Notices.For help with using MySQL, please visit the MySQL Forums, where you can discuss your issues with other MySQLusers.Document generated on: 2019-06-30 (revision: 62510)
Documentation Accessibility
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Opteron, the AMD logo, and the AMD Opteron logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of AdvancedMicro Devices. UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group.This software or hardware and documentation may provide access to or information about content,products, and services from third parties. Oracle Corporation and its affiliates are not responsible for andexpressly disclaim all warranties of any kind with respect to third-party content, products, and servicesunless otherwise set forth in an applicable agreement between you and Oracle. Oracle Corporation and itsaffiliates will not be responsible for any loss, costs, or damages incurred due to your access to or use ofthird-party content, products, or services, except as set forth in an applicable agreement between you andOracle.This documentation is NOT distributed under a GPL license. Use of this documentation is subject to thefollowing terms:You may create a printed copy of this documentation solely for your own personal use. Conversion to otherformats is allowed as long as the actual content is not altered or edited in any way. You shall not publishor distribute this documentation in any form or on any media, except if you distribute the documentation ina manner similar to how Oracle disseminates it (that is, electronically for download on a Web site with thesoftware) or on a CD-ROM or similar medium, provided however that the documentation is disseminatedtogether with the software on the same medium. Any other use, such as any dissemination of printedcopies or use of this documentation, in whole or in part, in another publication, requires the prior writtenconsent from an authorized representative of Oracle. Oracle and/or its affiliates reserve any and all rightsto this documentation not expressly granted above.Documentation AccessibilityFor information about Oracle's commitment to accessibility, visit the Oracle Accessibility Program websiteathttp://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=docacc.Access to Oracle SupportOracle customers that have purchased support have access to electronic support through My OracleSupport. For information, visithttp://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=info or visit http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=trs if you are hearing impaired.
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Chapter 1 TutorialThis chapter provides a tutorial introduction to MySQL by showing how to use the mysql client programto create and use a simple database. mysql (sometimes referred to as the “terminal monitor” or just“monitor”) is an interactive program that enables you to connect to a MySQL server, run queries, and viewthe results. mysql may also be used in batch mode: you place your queries in a file beforehand, then tellmysql to execute the contents of the file. Both ways of using mysql are covered here.To see a list of options provided by mysql, invoke it with the --help option:
�shell mysql --helpThis chapter assumes that mysql is installed on your machine and that a MySQL server is available towhich you can connect. If this is not true, contact your MySQL administrator. (If you are the administrator,you need to consult the relevant portions of this manual, such as MySQL Server Administration.)This chapter describes the entire process of setting up and using a database. If you are interested onlyin accessing an existing database, you may want to skip the sections that describe how to create thedatabase and the tables it contains.Because this chapter is tutorial in nature, many details are necessarily omitted. Consult the relevantsections of the manual for more information on the topics covered here.
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Chapter 2 Connecting to and Disconnecting from the ServerTo connect to the server, you will usually need to provide a MySQL user name when you invoke mysqland, most likely, a password. If the server runs on a machine other than the one where you log in, you willalso need to specify a host name. Contact your administrator to find out what connection parameters youshould use to connect (that is, what host, user name, and password to use). Once you know the properparameters, you should be able to connect like this:
�shell mysql -h host -u user -pEnter password: ********host and user represent the host name where your MySQL server is running and the user name of yourMySQL account. Substitute appropriate values for your setup. The ******** represents your password;enter it when mysql displays the Enter password: prompt.If that works, you should see some introductory information followed by a �mysql prompt:
�shell mysql -h host -u user -pEnter password: ********Welcome to the MySQL monitor. Commands end with ; or \g.Your MySQL connection id is 25338 to server version: 5.5.62-standardType 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the buffer.�mysqlThe �mysql prompt tells you that mysql is ready for you to enter SQL statements.If you are logging in on the same machine that MySQL is running on, you can omit the host, and simplyuse the following:
�shell mysql -u user -pIf, when you attempt to log in, you get an error message such as ERROR 2002 (HY000): Can'tconnect to local MySQL server through socket '/tmp/mysql.sock' (2), it means thatthe MySQL server daemon (Unix) or service (Windows) is not running. Consult the administrator or see thesection of Installing and Upgrading MySQL that is appropriate to your operating system.For help with other problems often encountered when trying to log in, see Common Errors When UsingMySQL Programs.Some MySQL installations permit users to connect as the anonymous (unnamed) user to the serverrunning on the local host. If this is the case on your machine, you should be able to connect to that serverby invoking mysql without any options:
�shell mysqlAfter you have connected successfully, you can disconnect any time by typing QUIT (or \q) at the �mysqlprompt:
�mysql QUITByeOn Unix, you can also disconnect by pressing Control+D.Most examples in the following sections assume that you are connected to the server. They indicate this bythe �mysql prompt.
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Chapter 3 Entering QueriesMake sure that you are connected to the server, as discussed in the previous section. Doing so does not initself select any database to work with, but that is okay. At this point, it is more important to find out a littleabout how to issue queries than to jump right in creating tables, loading data into them, and retrieving datafrom them. This section describes the basic principles of entering queries, using several queries you cantry out to familiarize yourself with how mysql works.Here is a simple query that asks the server to tell you its version number and the current date. Type it in asshown here following the �mysql prompt and press Enter:
�mysql SELECT VERSION(), CURRENT_DATE;+--------------+--------------+| VERSION() | CURRENT_DATE |+--------------+--------------+| 5.5.0-m2-log | 2009-05-04 |+--------------+--------------+1 row in set (0.01 sec)�mysqlThis query illustrates several things about mysql:•A query normally consists of an SQL statement followed by a semicolon. (There are some exceptionswhere a semicolon may be omitted. QUIT, mentioned earlier, is one of them. We'll get to others later.)•When you issue a query, mysql sends it to the server for execution and displays the results, then printsanother �mysql prompt to indicate that it is ready for another query.•mysql displays query output in tabular form (rows and columns). The first row contains labels forthe columns. The rows following are the query results. Normally, column labels are the names of thecolumns you fetch from database tables. If you're retrieving the value of an expression rather than atable column (as in the example just shown), mysql labels the column using the expression itself.•mysql shows how many rows were returned and how long the query took to execute, which gives youa rough idea of server performance. These values are imprecise because they represent wall clock time(not CPU or machine time), and because they are affected by factors such as server load and networklatency. (For brevity, the “rows in set” line is sometimes not shown in the remaining examples in thischapter.)Keywords may be entered in any lettercase. The following queries are equivalent:
�mysql SELECT VERSION(), CURRENT_DATE;�mysql select version(), current_date;�mysql SeLeCt vErSiOn(), current_DATE;Here is another query. It demonstrates that you can use mysql as a simple calculator:
�mysql SELECT SIN(PI()/4), (4+1)*5;+------------------+---------+| SIN(PI()/4) | (4+1)*5 |+------------------+---------+| 0.70710678118655 | 25 |+------------------+---------+1 row in set (0.02 sec)The queries shown thus far have been relatively short, single-line statements. You can even enter multiplestatements on a single line. Just end each one with a semicolon:
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�mysql SELECT VERSION(); SELECT NOW();+--------------+| VERSION() |+--------------+| 5.5.0-m2-log |+--------------+1 row in set (0.00 sec)+---------------------+| NOW() |+---------------------+| 2009-05-04 15:15:00 |+---------------------+1 row in set (0.00 sec)A query need not be given all on a single line, so lengthy queries that require several lines are not aproblem. mysql determines where your statement ends by looking for the terminating semicolon, not bylooking for the end of the input line. (In other words, mysql accepts free-format input: it collects input linesbut does not execute them until it sees the semicolon.)Here is a simple multiple-line statement:
�mysql SELECT� - USER()� - ,� - CURRENT_DATE;+---------------+--------------+| USER() | CURRENT_DATE |+---------------+--------------+| [email protected] | 2005-10-11 |+---------------+--------------+In this example, notice how the prompt changes from �mysql to �- after you enter the first line of amultiple-line query. This is how mysql indicates that it has not yet seen a complete statement and iswaiting for the rest. The prompt is your friend, because it provides valuable feedback. If you use thatfeedback, you can always be aware of what mysql is waiting for.If you decide you do not want to execute a query that you are in the process of entering, cancel it by typing\c:
�mysql SELECT� - USER()� - \c�mysqlHere, too, notice the prompt. It switches back to �mysql after you type \c, providing feedback to indicatethat mysql is ready for a new query.The following table shows each of the prompts you may see and summarizes what they mean about thestate that mysql is in.
Prompt
Meaning
�mysql
Ready for new query
�-
Waiting for next line of multiple-line query
�'
Waiting for next line, waiting for completion of a string that began with a single quote(')
�"
Waiting for next line, waiting for completion of a string that began with a doublequote (")
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Prompt
Meaning
�`
Waiting for next line, waiting for completion of an identifier that began with a backtick(`)
�/*
Waiting for next line, waiting for completion of a comment that began with /*
Multiple-line statements commonly occur by accident when you intend to issue a query on a single line, butforget the terminating semicolon. In this case, mysql waits for more input:
�mysql SELECT USER()� -If this happens to you (you think you've entered a statement but the only response is a �- prompt), mostlikely mysql is waiting for the semicolon. If you don't notice what the prompt is telling you, you might sitthere for a while before realizing what you need to do. Enter a semicolon to complete the statement, andmysql executes it:
�mysql SELECT USER()� - ;+---------------+| USER() |+---------------+| [email protected] |+---------------+The �' and �" prompts occur during string collection (another way of saying that MySQL is waitingfor completion of a string). In MySQL, you can write strings surrounded by either ' or " characters (forexample, 'hello' or "goodbye"), and mysql lets you enter strings that span multiple lines. Whenyou see a �' or �" prompt, it means that you have entered a line containing a string that begins with a 'or " quote character, but have not yet entered the matching quote that terminates the string. This oftenindicates that you have inadvertently left out a quote character. For example:
�mysql SELECT * FROM my_table WHERE name = 'Smith AND age &#x 30;; 'If you enter this SELECT statement, then press Enter and wait for the result, nothing happens. Insteadof wondering why this query takes so long, notice the clue provided by the &#x 30;;' prompt. It tells you thatmysql expects to see the rest of an unterminated string. (Do you see the error in the statement? The string'Smith is missing the second single quotation mark.)At this point, what do you do? The simplest thing is to cancel the query. However, you cannot just type \cin this case, because mysql interprets it as part of the string that it is collecting. Instead, enter the closingquote character (so mysql knows you've finished the string), then type \c:
�mysql SELECT * FROM my_table WHERE name = 'Smith AND age &#x 30;; ' '\c&#x 30;;mysqlThe prompt changes back to &#x 30;;mysql, indicating that mysql is ready for a new query.The &#x 30;;` prompt is similar to the &#x 30;;' and &#x 30;;" prompts, but indicates that you have begun but not completed abacktick-quoted identifier.It is important to know what the &#x 30;;', &#x 30;;", and &#x 30;;` prompts signify, because if you mistakenly enter anunterminated string, any further lines you type appear to be ignored by mysql—including a line containing
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QUIT. This can be quite confusing, especially if you do not know that you need to supply the terminatingquote before you can cancel the current query.
Note
Multiline statements from this point on are written without the secondary (�-or other) prompts, to make it easier to copy and paste the statements to try foryourself.
Creating and Selecting a Database
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The mysql database describes user access privileges. The test database often is available as aworkspace for users to try things out.The list of databases displayed by the statement may be different on your machine; SHOW DATABASESdoes not show databases that you have no privileges for if you do not have the SHOW DATABASESprivilege. See SHOW DATABASES Syntax.If the test database exists, try to access it:
�mysql USE testDatabase changedUSE, like QUIT, does not require a semicolon. (You can terminate such statements with a semicolon if youlike; it does no harm.) The USE statement is special in another way, too: it must be given on a single line.You can use the test database (if you have access to it) for the examples that follow, but anything youcreate in that database can be removed by anyone else with access to it. For this reason, you shouldprobably ask your MySQL administrator for permission to use a database of your own. Suppose that youwant to call yours menagerie. The administrator needs to execute a statement like this:
�mysql GRANT ALL ON menagerie.* TO 'your_mysql_name'@'your_client_host';where your_mysql_name is the MySQL user name assigned to you and your_client_host is the hostfrom which you connect to the server.4.1 Creating and Selecting a DatabaseIf the administrator creates your database for you when setting up your permissions, you can begin usingit. Otherwise, you need to create it yourself:
�mysql CREATE DATABASE menagerie;Under Unix, database names are case-sensitive (unlike SQL keywords), so you must always refer toyour database as menagerie, not as Menagerie, MENAGERIE, or some other variant. This is also truefor table names. (Under Windows, this restriction does not apply, although you must refer to databasesand tables using the same lettercase throughout a given query. However, for a variety of reasons, therecommended best practice is always to use the same lettercase that was used when the database wascreated.)
Note
If you get an error such as ERROR 1044 (42000): Access denied for user'micah'@'localhost' to database 'menagerie' when attempting tocreate a database, this means that your user account does not have the necessaryprivileges to do so. Discuss this with the administrator or see Access Control andAccount Management.Creating a database does not select it for use; you must do that explicitly. To make menagerie the currentdatabase, use this statement:
�mysql USE menagerieDatabase changedYour database needs to be created only once, but you must select it for use each time you begin a mysqlsession. You can do this by issuing a USE statement as shown in the example. Alternatively, you can select
Creating a Table
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the database on the command line when you invoke mysql. Just specify its name after any connectionparameters that you might need to provide. For example:
�shell mysql -h host -u user -p menagerieEnter password: ********
Important
menagerie in the command just shown is not your password. If you want to supplyyour password on the command line after the -p option, you must do so with nointervening space (for example, as -ppassword, not as -p password). However,putting your password on the command line is not recommended, because doing soexposes it to snooping by other users logged in on your machine.
Note
You can see at any time which database is currently selected using SELECTDATABASE().4.2 Creating a TableCreating the database is the easy part, but at this point it is empty, as SHOW TABLES tells you:
�mysql SHOW TABLES;Empty set (0.00 sec)The harder part is deciding what the structure of your database should be: what tables you need and whatcolumns should be in each of them.You want a table that contains a record for each of your pets. This can be called the pet table, andit should contain, as a bare minimum, each animal's name. Because the name by itself is not veryinteresting, the table should contain other information. For example, if more than one person in yourfamily keeps pets, you might want to list each animal's owner. You might also want to record some basicdescriptive information such as species and sex.How about age? That might be of interest, but it is not a good thing to store in a database. Age changesas time passes, which means you'd have to update your records often. Instead, it is better to store a fixedvalue such as date of birth. Then, whenever you need age, you can calculate it as the difference betweenthe current date and the birth date. MySQL provides functions for doing date arithmetic, so this is notdifficult. Storing birth date rather than age has other advantages, too:•You can use the database for tasks such as generating reminders for upcoming pet birthdays. (If youthink this type of query is somewhat silly, note that it is the same question you might ask in the contextof a business database to identify clients to whom you need to send out birthday greetings in the currentweek or month, for that computer-assisted personal touch.)•You can calculate age in relation to dates other than the current date. For example, if you store deathdate in the database, you can easily calculate how old a pet was when it died.You can probably think of other types of information that would be useful in the pet table, but the onesidentified so far are sufficient: name, owner, species, sex, birth, and death.Use a CREATE TABLE statement to specify the layout of your table:
Loading Data into a Table
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�mysql CREATE TABLE pet (name VARCHAR(20), owner VARCHAR(20), species VARCHAR(20), sex CHAR(1), birth DATE, death DATE);VARCHAR is a good choice for the name, owner, and species columns because the column values varyin length. The lengths in those column definitions need not all be the same, and need not be 20. You cannormally pick any length from 1 to 65535, whatever seems most reasonable to you. If you make a poorchoice and it turns out later that you need a longer field, MySQL provides an ALTER TABLE statement.Several types of values can be chosen to represent sex in animal records, such as 'm' and 'f', orperhaps 'male' and 'female'. It is simplest to use the single characters 'm' and 'f'.The use of the DATE data type for the birth and death columns is a fairly obvious choice.Once you have created a table, SHOW TABLES should produce some output:
�mysql SHOW TABLES;+---------------------+| Tables in menagerie |+---------------------+| pet |+---------------------+To verify that your table was created the way you expected, use a DESCRIBE statement:
�mysql DESCRIBE pet;+---------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+| Field | Type | Null | Key | Default | Extra |+---------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+| name | varchar(20) | YES | | NULL | || owner | varchar(20) | YES | | NULL | || species | varchar(20) | YES | | NULL | || sex | char(1) | YES | | NULL | || birth | date | YES | | NULL | || death | date | YES | | NULL | |+---------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+You can use DESCRIBE any time, for example, if you forget the names of the columns in your table or whattypes they have.For more information about MySQL data types, see Data Types.4.3 Loading Data into a TableAfter creating your table, you need to populate it. The LOAD DATA and INSERT statements are useful forthis.Suppose that your pet records can be described as shown here. (Observe that MySQL expects dates in'YYYY-MM-DD' format; this may be different from what you are used to.)
name
owner
species
sex
birth
death
Fluffy
Harold
cat
f
1993-02-04
Claws
Gwen
cat
m
1994-03-17
Buffy
Harold
dog
f
1989-05-13
Fang
Benny
dog
m
1990-08-27
Bowser
Diane
dog
m
1979-08-31
1995-07-29
Retrieving Information from a Table
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name
owner
species
sex
birth
death
Chirpy
Gwen
bird
f
1998-09-11
Whistler
Gwen
bird
1997-12-09
Slim
Benny
snake
m
1996-04-29
Because you are beginning with an empty table, an easy way to populate it is to create a text filecontaining a row for each of your animals, then load the contents of the file into the table with a singlestatement.You could create a text file pet.txt containing one record per line, with values separated by tabs, andgiven in the order in which the columns were listed in the CREATE TABLE statement. For missing values(such as unknown sexes or death dates for animals that are still living), you can use NULL values. Torepresent these in your text file, use \N (backslash, capital-N). For example, the record for Whistler the birdwould look like this (where the whitespace between values is a single tab character):
Whistler Gwen bird \N 1997-12-09 \NTo load the text file pet.txt into the pet table, use this statement:
�mysql LOAD DATA LOCAL INFILE '/path/pet.txt' INTO TABLE pet;If you created the file on Windows with an editor that uses \r\n as a line terminator, you should use thisstatement instead:
�mysql LOAD DATA LOCAL INFILE '/path/pet.txt' INTO TABLE pet LINES TERMINATED BY '\r\n';(On an Apple machine running OS X, you would likely want to use LINES TERMINATED BY '\r'.)You can specify the column value separator and end of line marker explicitly in the LOAD DATA statementif you wish, but the defaults are tab and linefeed. These are sufficient for the statement to read the filepet.txt properly.If the statement fails, it is likely that your MySQL installation does not have local file capability enabled bydefault. See Security Issues with LOAD DATA LOCAL, for information on how to change this.When you want to add new records one at a time, the INSERT statement is useful. In its simplest form,you supply values for each column, in the order in which the columns were listed in the CREATE TABLEstatement. Suppose that Diane gets a new hamster named “Puffball.” You could add a new record usingan INSERT statement like this:
�mysql INSERT INTO pet VALUES ('Puffball','Diane','hamster','f','1999-03-30',NULL);String and date values are specified as quoted strings here. Also, with INSERT, you can insert NULLdirectly to represent a missing value. You do not use \N like you do with LOAD DATA.From this example, you should be able to see that there would be a lot more typing involved to load yourrecords initially using several INSERT statements rather than a single LOAD DATA statement.4.4 Retrieving Information from a TableThe SELECT statement is used to pull information from a table. The general form of the statement is:
Selecting All Data
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SELECT what_to_selectFROM which_tableWHERE conditions_to_satisfy;what_to_select indicates what you want to see. This can be a list of columns, or * to indicate “allcolumns.” which_table indicates the table from which you want to retrieve data. The WHERE clauseis optional. If it is present, conditions_to_satisfy specifies one or more conditions that rows mustsatisfy to qualify for retrieval.4.4.1 Selecting All DataThe simplest form of SELECT retrieves everything from a table:
�mysql SELECT * FROM pet;+----------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+| name | owner | species | sex | birth | death |+----------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+| Fluffy | Harold | cat | f | 1993-02-04 | NULL || Claws | Gwen | cat | m | 1994-03-17 | NULL || Buffy | Harold | dog | f | 1989-05-13 | NULL || Fang | Benny | dog | m | 1990-08-27 | NULL || Bowser | Diane | dog | m | 1979-08-31 | 1995-07-29 || Chirpy | Gwen | bird | f | 1998-09-11 | NULL || Whistler | Gwen | bird | NULL | 1997-12-09 | NULL || Slim | Benny | snake | m | 1996-04-29 | NULL || Puffball | Diane | hamster | f | 1999-03-30 | NULL |+----------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+This form of SELECT is useful if you want to review your entire table, for example, after you've just loaded itwith your initial data set. For example, you may happen to think that the birth date for Bowser doesn't seemquite right. Consulting your original pedigree papers, you find that the correct birth year should be 1989,not 1979.There are at least two ways to fix this:•Edit the file pet.txt to correct the error, then empty the table and reload it using DELETE and LOADDATA:
�mysql DELETE FROM pet;�mysql LOAD DATA LOCAL INFILE '/path/pet.txt' INTO TABLE pet;However, if you do this, you must also re-enter the record for Puffball.•Fix only the erroneous record with an UPDATE statement:
�mysql UPDATE pet SET birth = '1989-08-31' WHERE name = 'Bowser';The UPDATE changes only the record in question and does not require you to reload the table.4.4.2 Selecting Particular RowsAs shown in the preceding section, it is easy to retrieve an entire table. Just omit the WHERE clause fromthe SELECT statement. But typically you don't want to see the entire table, particularly when it becomeslarge. Instead, you're usually more interested in answering a particular question, in which case you specifysome constraints on the information you want. Let's look at some selection queries in terms of questionsabout your pets that they answer.
Selecting Particular Columns
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You can select only particular rows from your table. For example, if you want to verify the change that youmade to Bowser's birth date, select Bowser's record like this:
�mysql SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name = 'Bowser';+--------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+| name | owner | species | sex | birth | death |+--------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+| Bowser | Diane | dog | m | 1989-08-31 | 1995-07-29 |+--------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+The output confirms that the year is correctly recorded as 1989, not 1979.String comparisons normally are case-insensitive, so you can specify the name as 'bowser', 'BOWSER',and so forth. The query result is the same.You can specify conditions on any column, not just name. For example, if you want to know which animalswere born during or after 1998, test the birth column:
�mysql �SELECT * FROM pet WHERE birth = '1998-1-1';+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+-------+| name | owner | species | sex | birth | death |+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+-------+| Chirpy | Gwen | bird | f | 1998-09-11 | NULL || Puffball | Diane | hamster | f | 1999-03-30 | NULL |+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+-------+You can combine conditions, for example, to locate female dogs:
�mysql SELECT * FROM pet WHERE species = 'dog' AND sex = 'f';+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+| name | owner | species | sex | birth | death |+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+| Buffy | Harold | dog | f | 1989-05-13 | NULL |+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+The preceding query uses the AND logical operator. There is also an OR operator:
�mysql SELECT * FROM pet WHERE species = 'snake' OR species = 'bird';+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+-------+| name | owner | species | sex | birth | death |+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+-------+| Chirpy | Gwen | bird | f | 1998-09-11 | NULL || Whistler | Gwen | bird | NULL | 1997-12-09 | NULL || Slim | Benny | snake | m | 1996-04-29 | NULL |+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+-------+AND and OR may be intermixed, although AND has higher precedence than OR. If you use both operators, itis a good idea to use parentheses to indicate explicitly how conditions should be grouped:
�mysql SELECT * FROM pet WHERE (species = 'cat' AND sex = 'm') OR (species = 'dog' AND sex = 'f');+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+| name | owner | species | sex | birth | death |+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+| Claws | Gwen | cat | m | 1994-03-17 | NULL || Buffy | Harold | dog | f | 1989-05-13 | NULL |+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+4.4.3 Selecting Particular Columns
Selecting Particular Columns
16
If you do not want to see entire rows from your table, just name the columns in which you are interested,separated by commas. For example, if you want to know when your animals were born, select the nameand birth columns:
�mysql SELECT name, birth FROM pet;+----------+------------+| name | birth |+----------+------------+| Fluffy | 1993-02-04 || Claws | 1994-03-17 || Buffy | 1989-05-13 || Fang | 1990-08-27 || Bowser | 1989-08-31 || Chirpy | 1998-09-11 || Whistler | 1997-12-09 || Slim | 1996-04-29 || Puffball | 1999-03-30 |+----------+------------+To find out who owns pets, use this query:
�mysql SELECT owner FROM pet;+--------+| owner |+--------+| Harold || Gwen || Harold || Benny || Diane || Gwen || Gwen || Benny || Diane |+--------+Notice that the query simply retrieves the owner column from each record, and some of them appear morethan once. To minimize the output, retrieve each unique output record just once by adding the keywordDISTINCT:
�mysql SELECT DISTINCT owner FROM pet;+--------+| owner |+--------+| Benny || Diane || Gwen || Harold |+--------+You can use a WHERE clause to combine row selection with column selection. For example, to get birthdates for dogs and cats only, use this query:
�mysql SELECT name, species, birth FROM pet WHERE species = 'dog' OR species = 'cat';+--------+---------+------------+| name | species | birth |+--------+---------+------------+| Fluffy | cat | 1993-02-04 || Claws | cat | 1994-03-17 |
Sorting Rows
17
| Buffy | dog | 1989-05-13 || Fang | dog | 1990-08-27 || Bowser | dog | 1989-08-31 |+--------+---------+------------+4.4.4 Sorting RowsYou may have noticed in the preceding examples that the result rows are displayed in no particular order. Itis often easier to examine query output when the rows are sorted in some meaningful way. To sort a result,use an ORDER BY clause.Here are animal birthdays, sorted by date:
�mysql SELECT name, birth FROM pet ORDER BY birth;+----------+------------+| name | birth |+----------+------------+| Buffy | 1989-05-13 || Bowser | 1989-08-31 || Fang | 1990-08-27 || Fluffy | 1993-02-04 || Claws | 1994-03-17 || Slim | 1996-04-29 || Whistler | 1997-12-09 || Chirpy | 1998-09-11 || Puffball | 1999-03-30 |+----------+------------+On character type columns, sorting—like all other comparison operations—is normally performed in acase-insensitive fashion. This means that the order is undefined for columns that are identical except fortheir case. You can force a case-sensitive sort for a column by using BINARY like so: ORDER BY BINARYcol_name.The default sort order is ascending, with smallest values first. To sort in reverse (descending) order, addthe DESC keyword to the name of the column you are sorting by:
�mysql SELECT name, birth FROM pet ORDER BY birth DESC;+----------+------------+| name | birth |+----------+------------+| Puffball | 1999-03-30 || Chirpy | 1998-09-11 || Whistler | 1997-12-09 || Slim | 1996-04-29 || Claws | 1994-03-17 || Fluffy | 1993-02-04 || Fang | 1990-08-27 || Bowser | 1989-08-31 || Buffy | 1989-05-13 |+----------+------------+You can sort on multiple columns, and you can sort different columns in different directions. For example,to sort by type of animal in ascending order, then by birth date within animal type in descending order(youngest animals first), use the following query:
�mysql SELECT name, species, birth FROM pet ORDER BY species, birth DESC;+----------+---------+------------+| name | species | birth |+----------+---------+------------+
Date Calculations
18
| Chirpy | bird | 1998-09-11 || Whistler | bird | 1997-12-09 || Claws | cat | 1994-03-17 || Fluffy | cat | 1993-02-04 || Fang | dog | 1990-08-27 || Bowser | dog | 1989-08-31 || Buffy | dog | 1989-05-13 || Puffball | hamster | 1999-03-30 || Slim | snake | 1996-04-29 |+----------+---------+------------+The DESC keyword applies only to the column name immediately preceding it (birth); it does not affectthe species column sort order.4.4.5 Date CalculationsMySQL provides several functions that you can use to perform calculations on dates, for example, tocalculate ages or extract parts of dates.To determine how many years old each of your pets is, use the TIMESTAMPDIFF() function. Itsarguments are the unit in which you want the result expressed, and the two dates for which to take thedifference. The following query shows, for each pet, the birth date, the current date, and the age in years.An alias (age) is used to make the final output column label more meaningful.
�mysql SELECT name, birth, CURDATE(), TIMESTAMPDIFF(YEAR,birth,CURDATE()) AS age FROM pet;+----------+------------+------------+------+| name | birth | CURDATE() | age |+----------+------------+------------+------+| Fluffy | 1993-02-04 | 2003-08-19 | 10 || Claws | 1994-03-17 | 2003-08-19 | 9 || Buffy | 1989-05-13 | 2003-08-19 | 14 || Fang | 1990-08-27 | 2003-08-19 | 12 || Bowser | 1989-08-31 | 2003-08-19 | 13 || Chirpy | 1998-09-11 | 2003-08-19 | 4 || Whistler | 1997-12-09 | 2003-08-19 | 5 || Slim | 1996-04-29 | 2003-08-19 | 7 || Puffball | 1999-03-30 | 2003-08-19 | 4 |+----------+------------+------------+------+The query works, but the result could be scanned more easily if the rows were presented in some order.This can be done by adding an ORDER BY name clause to sort the output by name:
�mysql SELECT name, birth, CURDATE(), TIMESTAMPDIFF(YEAR,birth,CURDATE()) AS age FROM pet ORDER BY name;+----------+------------+------------+------+| name | birth | CURDATE() | age |+----------+------------+------------+------+| Bowser | 1989-08-31 | 2003-08-19 | 13 || Buffy | 1989-05-13 | 2003-08-19 | 14 || Chirpy | 1998-09-11 | 2003-08-19 | 4 || Claws | 1994-03-17 | 2003-08-19 | 9 || Fang | 1990-08-27 | 2003-08-19 | 12 || Fluffy | 1993-02-04 | 2003-08-19 | 10 || Puffball | 1999-03-30 | 2003-08-19 | 4 || Slim | 1996-04-29 | 2003-08-19 | 7 || Whistler | 1997-12-09 | 2003-08-19 | 5 |+----------+------------+------------+------+To sort the output by age rather than name, just use a different ORDER BY clause:
Working with NULL Values
20
| name | birth |+-------+------------+| Buffy | 1989-05-13 |+-------+------------+There is a small complication if the current month is December. You cannot merely add one to the monthnumber (12) and look for animals born in month 13, because there is no such month. Instead, you look foranimals born in January (month 1).You can write the query so that it works no matter what the current month is, so that you do not have touse the number for a particular month. DATE_ADD() enables you to add a time interval to a given date.If you add a month to the value of CURDATE(), then extract the month part with MONTH(), the resultproduces the month in which to look for birthdays:
�mysql SELECT name, birth FROM pet WHERE MONTH(birth) = MONTH(DATE_ADD(CURDATE(),INTERVAL 1 MONTH));A different way to accomplish the same task is to add 1 to get the next month after the current one afterusing the modulo function (MOD) to wrap the month value to 0 if it is currently 12:
�mysql SELECT name, birth FROM pet WHERE MONTH(birth) = MOD(MONTH(CURDATE()), 12) + 1;MONTH() returns a number between 1 and 12. And MOD(something,12) returns a number between 0and 11. So the addition has to be after the MOD(), otherwise we would go from November (11) to January(1).If a calculation uses invalid dates, the calculation fails and produces warnings:
�mysql SELECT '2018-10-31' + INTERVAL 1 DAY;+-------------------------------+| '2018-10-31' + INTERVAL 1 DAY |+-------------------------------+| 2018-11-01 |+-------------------------------+�mysql SELECT '2018-10-32' + INTERVAL 1 DAY;+-------------------------------+| '2018-10-32' + INTERVAL 1 DAY |+-------------------------------+| NULL |+-------------------------------+�mysql SHOW WARNINGS;+---------+------+----------------------------------------+| Level | Code | Message |+---------+------+----------------------------------------+| Warning | 1292 | Incorrect datetime value: '2018-10-32' |+---------+------+----------------------------------------+4.4.6 Working with NULL ValuesThe NULL value can be surprising until you get used to it. Conceptually, NULL means “a missing unknownvalue” and it is treated somewhat differently from other values.To test for NULL, use the IS NULL and IS NOT NULL operators, as shown here:
�mysql SELECT 1 IS NULL, 1 IS NOT NULL;+-----------+---------------+| 1 IS NULL | 1 IS NOT NULL |
Date Calculations
19
�mysql SELECT name, birth, CURDATE(), TIMESTAMPDIFF(YEAR,birth,CURDATE()) AS age FROM pet ORDER BY age;+----------+------------+------------+------+| name | birth | CURDATE() | age |+----------+------------+------------+------+| Chirpy | 1998-09-11 | 2003-08-19 | 4 || Puffball | 1999-03-30 | 2003-08-19 | 4 || Whistler | 1997-12-09 | 2003-08-19 | 5 || Slim | 1996-04-29 | 2003-08-19 | 7 || Claws | 1994-03-17 | 2003-08-19 | 9 || Fluffy | 1993-02-04 | 2003-08-19 | 10 || Fang | 1990-08-27 | 2003-08-19 | 12 || Bowser | 1989-08-31 | 2003-08-19 | 13 || Buffy | 1989-05-13 | 2003-08-19 | 14 |+----------+------------+------------+------+A similar query can be used to determine age at death for animals that have died. You determine whichanimals these are by checking whether the death value is NULL. Then, for those with non-NULL values,compute the difference between the death and birth values:
�mysql SELECT name, birth, death, TIMESTAMPDIFF(YEAR,birth,death) AS age FROM pet WHERE death IS NOT NULL ORDER BY age;+--------+------------+------------+------+| name | birth | death | age |+--------+------------+------------+------+| Bowser | 1989-08-31 | 1995-07-29 | 5 |+--------+------------+------------+------+The query uses death IS NOT NULL rather than �death because NULL is a special valuethat cannot be compared using the usual comparison operators. This is discussed later. See Section 4.4.6,“Working with NULL Values”.What if you want to know which animals have birthdays next month? For this type of calculation, yearand day are irrelevant; you simply want to extract the month part of the birth column. MySQL providesseveral functions for extracting parts of dates, such as YEAR(), MONTH(), and DAYOFMONTH(). MONTH()is the appropriate function here. To see how it works, run a simple query that displays the value of bothbirth and MONTH(birth):
�mysql SELECT name, birth, MONTH(birth) FROM pet;+----------+------------+--------------+| name | birth | MONTH(birth) |+----------+------------+--------------+| Fluffy | 1993-02-04 | 2 || Claws | 1994-03-17 | 3 || Buffy | 1989-05-13 | 5 || Fang | 1990-08-27 | 8 || Bowser | 1989-08-31 | 8 || Chirpy | 1998-09-11 | 9 || Whistler | 1997-12-09 | 12 || Slim | 1996-04-29 | 4 || Puffball | 1999-03-30 | 3 |+----------+------------+--------------+Finding animals with birthdays in the upcoming month is also simple. Suppose that the current month isApril. Then the month value is 4 and you can look for animals born in May (month 5) like this:
�mysql SELECT name, birth FROM pet WHERE MONTH(birth) = 5;+-------+------------+
Pattern Matching
21
+-----------+---------------+| 0 | 1 |+-----------+---------------+You cannot use arithmetic comparison operators such as =, , or � to test for NULL. To demonstrate thisfor yourself, try the following query:
�mysql �&#x NUL;&#xL, 1;&#x 000;SELECT 1 = NULL, 1 +----------+-----------+----------+----------+�&#x NUL;&#xL | ; 00;| 1 = NULL | 1 +----------+-----------+----------+----------+| NULL | NULL | NULL | NULL |+----------+-----------+----------+----------+Because the result of any arithmetic comparison with NULL is also NULL, you cannot obtain any meaningfulresults from such comparisons.In MySQL, 0 or NULL means false and anything else means true. The default truth value from a booleanoperation is 1.This special treatment of NULL is why, in the previous section, it was necessary to determine whichanimals are no longer alive using death IS NOT NULL instead of �death .Two NULL values are regarded as equal in a GROUP BY.When doing an ORDER BY, NULL values are presented first if you do ORDER BY ... ASC and last if youdo ORDER BY ... DESC.A common error when working with NULL is to assume that it is not possible to insert a zero or an emptystring into a column defined as NOT NULL, but this is not the case. These are in fact values, whereas NULLmeans “not having a value.” You can test this easily enough by using IS [NOT] NULL as shown:
�mysql SELECT 0 IS NULL, 0 IS NOT NULL, '' IS NULL, '' IS NOT NULL;+-----------+---------------+------------+----------------+| 0 IS NULL | 0 IS NOT NULL | '' IS NULL | '' IS NOT NULL |+-----------+---------------+------------+----------------+| 0 | 1 | 0 | 1 |+-----------+---------------+------------+----------------+Thus it is entirely possible to insert a zero or empty string into a NOT NULL column, as these are in factNOT NULL. See Problems with NULL Values.4.4.7 Pattern MatchingMySQL provides standard SQL pattern matching as well as a form of pattern matching based on extendedregular expressions similar to those used by Unix utilities such as vi, grep, and sed.SQL pattern matching enables you to use _ to match any single character and % to match an arbitrarynumber of characters (including zero characters). In MySQL, SQL patterns are case-insensitive by default.Some examples are shown here. Do not use = or � when you use SQL patterns. Use the LIKE or NOTLIKE comparison operators instead.To find names beginning with b:
�mysql SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name LIKE 'b%';+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+| name | owner | species | sex | birth | death |
Pattern Matching
22
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+| Buffy | Harold | dog | f | 1989-05-13 | NULL || Bowser | Diane | dog | m | 1989-08-31 | 1995-07-29 |+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+To find names ending with fy:
�mysql SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name LIKE '%fy';+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+| name | owner | species | sex | birth | death |+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+| Fluffy | Harold | cat | f | 1993-02-04 | NULL || Buffy | Harold | dog | f | 1989-05-13 | NULL |+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+To find names containing a w:
�mysql SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name LIKE '%w%';+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+| name | owner | species | sex | birth | death |+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+| Claws | Gwen | cat | m | 1994-03-17 | NULL || Bowser | Diane | dog | m | 1989-08-31 | 1995-07-29 || Whistler | Gwen | bird | NULL | 1997-12-09 | NULL |+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+To find names containing exactly five characters, use five instances of the _ pattern character:
�mysql SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name LIKE '_____';+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+| name | owner | species | sex | birth | death |+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+| Claws | Gwen | cat | m | 1994-03-17 | NULL || Buffy | Harold | dog | f | 1989-05-13 | NULL |+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+The other type of pattern matching provided by MySQL uses extended regular expressions. When youtest for a match for this type of pattern, use the REGEXP and NOT REGEXP operators (or RLIKE and NOTRLIKE, which are synonyms).The following list describes some characteristics of extended regular expressions:•. matches any single character.•A character class [...] matches any character within the brackets. For example, [abc] matches a, b,or c. To name a range of characters, use a dash. [a-z] matches any letter, whereas [0-9] matchesany digit.•* matches zero or more instances of the thing preceding it. For example, x* matches any number of xcharacters, [0-9]* matches any number of digits, and .* matches any number of anything.•A regular expression pattern match succeeds if the pattern matches anywhere in the value being tested.(This differs from a LIKE pattern match, which succeeds only if the pattern matches the entire value.)•To anchor a pattern so that it must match the beginning or end of the value being tested, use ^ at thebeginning or $ at the end of the pattern.To demonstrate how extended regular expressions work, the LIKE queries shown previously are rewrittenhere to use REGEXP.
Pattern Matching
23
To find names beginning with b, use ^ to match the beginning of the name:
�mysql SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name REGEXP '^b';+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+| name | owner | species | sex | birth | death |+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+| Buffy | Harold | dog | f | 1989-05-13 | NULL || Bowser | Diane | dog | m | 1989-08-31 | 1995-07-29 |+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+To force a REGEXP comparison to be case-sensitive, use the BINARY keyword to make one of the strings abinary string. This query matches only lowercase b at the beginning of a name:
SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name REGEXP BINARY '^b';To find names ending with fy, use $ to match the end of the name:
�mysql SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name REGEXP 'fy$';+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+| name | owner | species | sex | birth | death |+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+| Fluffy | Harold | cat | f | 1993-02-04 | NULL || Buffy | Harold | dog | f | 1989-05-13 | NULL |+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+To find names containing a w, use this query:
�mysql SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name REGEXP 'w';+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+| name | owner | species | sex | birth | death |+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+| Claws | Gwen | cat | m | 1994-03-17 | NULL || Bowser | Diane | dog | m | 1989-08-31 | 1995-07-29 || Whistler | Gwen | bird | NULL | 1997-12-09 | NULL |+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+Because a regular expression pattern matches if it occurs anywhere in the value, it is not necessary in theprevious query to put a wildcard on either side of the pattern to get it to match the entire value as would betrue with an SQL pattern.To find names containing exactly five characters, use ^ and $ to match the beginning and end of the name,and five instances of . in between:
�mysql SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name REGEXP '^.....$';+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+| name | owner | species | sex | birth | death |+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+| Claws | Gwen | cat | m | 1994-03-17 | NULL || Buffy | Harold | dog | f | 1989-05-13 | NULL |+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+You could also write the previous query using the {n} (“repeat-n-times”) operator:
�mysql SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name REGEXP '^.{5}$';+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+| name | owner | species | sex | birth | death |+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+| Claws | Gwen | cat | m | 1994-03-17 | NULL |
Counting Rows
24
| Buffy | Harold | dog | f | 1989-05-13 | NULL |+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+For more information about the syntax for regular expressions, see Regular Expressions.4.4.8 Counting RowsDatabases are often used to answer the question, “How often does a certain type of data occur in a table?”For example, you might want to know how many pets you have, or how many pets each owner has, or youmight want to perform various kinds of census operations on your animals.Counting the total number of animals you have is the same question as “How many rows are in the pettable?” because there is one record per pet. COUNT(*) counts the number of rows, so the query to countyour animals looks like this:
�mysql SELECT COUNT(*) FROM pet;+----------+| COUNT(*) |+----------+| 9 |+----------+Earlier, you retrieved the names of the people who owned pets. You can use COUNT() if you want to findout how many pets each owner has:
�mysql SELECT owner, COUNT(*) FROM pet GROUP BY owner;+--------+----------+| owner | COUNT(*) |+--------+----------+| Benny | 2 || Diane | 2 || Gwen | 3 || Harold | 2 |+--------+----------+The preceding query uses GROUP BY to group all records for each owner. The use of COUNT() inconjunction with GROUP BY is useful for characterizing your data under various groupings. The followingexamples show different ways to perform animal census operations.Number of animals per species:
�mysql SELECT species, COUNT(*) FROM pet GROUP BY species;+---------+----------+| species | COUNT(*) |+---------+----------+| bird | 2 || cat | 2 || dog | 3 || hamster | 1 || snake | 1 |+---------+----------+Number of animals per sex:
�mysql SELECT sex, COUNT(*) FROM pet GROUP BY sex;+------+----------+| sex | COUNT(*) |+------+----------+| NULL | 1 |
Counting Rows
25
| f | 4 || m | 4 |+------+----------+(In this output, NULL indicates that the sex is unknown.)Number of animals per combination of species and sex:
�mysql SELECT species, sex, COUNT(*) FROM pet GROUP BY species, sex;+---------+------+----------+| species | sex | COUNT(*) |+---------+------+----------+| bird | NULL | 1 || bird | f | 1 || cat | f | 1 || cat | m | 1 || dog | f | 1 || dog | m | 2 || hamster | f | 1 || snake | m | 1 |+---------+------+----------+You need not retrieve an entire table when you use COUNT(). For example, the previous query, whenperformed just on dogs and cats, looks like this:
�mysql SELECT species, sex, COUNT(*) FROM pet WHERE species = 'dog' OR species = 'cat' GROUP BY species, sex;+---------+------+----------+| species | sex | COUNT(*) |+---------+------+----------+| cat | f | 1 || cat | m | 1 || dog | f | 1 || dog | m | 2 |+---------+------+----------+Or, if you wanted the number of animals per sex only for animals whose sex is known:
�mysql SELECT species, sex, COUNT(*) FROM pet WHERE sex IS NOT NULL GROUP BY species, sex;+---------+------+----------+| species | sex | COUNT(*) |+---------+------+----------+| bird | f | 1 || cat | f | 1 || cat | m | 1 || dog | f | 1 || dog | m | 2 || hamster | f | 1 || snake | m | 1 |+---------+------+----------+If you name columns to select in addition to the COUNT() value, a GROUP BY clause should be presentthat names those same columns. Otherwise, the following occurs:•If the ONLY_FULL_GROUP_BY SQL mode is enabled, an error occurs:
�mysql SET sql_mode = 'ONLY_FULL_GROUP_BY';Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
Using More Than one Table
26
�mysql SELECT owner, COUNT(*) FROM pet;ERROR 1140 (42000): Mixing of GROUP columns (MIN(),MAX(),COUNT()...)with no GROUP columns is illegal if there is no GROUP BY clause•If ONLY_FULL_GROUP_BY is not enabled, the query is processed by treating all rows as a single group,but the value selected for each named column is nondeterministic. The server is free to select the valuefrom any row:
�mysql SET sql_mode = '';Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)�mysql SELECT owner, COUNT(*) FROM pet;+--------+----------+| owner | COUNT(*) |+--------+----------+| Harold | 8 |+--------+----------+1 row in set (0.00 sec)See also MySQL Handling of GROUP BY. See Aggregate (GROUP BY) Function Descriptions forinformation about COUNT(expr) behavior and related optimizations.4.4.9 Using More Than one TableThe pet table keeps track of which pets you have. If you want to record other information about them,such as events in their lives like visits to the vet or when litters are born, you need another table. Whatshould this table look like? It needs to contain the following information:•The pet name so that you know which animal each event pertains to.•A date so that you know when the event occurred.•A field to describe the event.•An event type field, if you want to be able to categorize events.Given these considerations, the CREATE TABLE statement for the event table might look like this:
�mysql CREATE TABLE event (name VARCHAR(20), date DATE, type VARCHAR(15), remark VARCHAR(255));As with the pet table, it is easiest to load the initial records by creating a tab-delimited text file containingthe following information.
name
date
type
remark
Fluffy
1995-05-15
litter
4 kittens, 3 female, 1 male
Buffy
1993-06-23
litter
5 puppies, 2 female, 3 male
Buffy
1994-06-19
litter
3 puppies, 3 female
Chirpy
1999-03-21
vet
needed beak straightened
Slim
1997-08-03
vet
broken rib
Bowser
1991-10-12
kennel
Fang
1991-10-12
kennel
Fang
1998-08-28
birthday
Gave him a new chew toy
Claws
1998-03-17
birthday
Gave him a new flea collar
9
Chapter 4 Creating and Using a DatabaseTable of Contents4.1 Creating and Selecting a Database.............................................................................................104.2 Creating a Table........................................................................................................................114.3 Loading Data into a Table..........................................................................................................124.4 Retrieving Information from a Table.............................................................................................134.4.1 Selecting All Data............................................................................................................144.4.2 Selecting Particular Rows.................................................................................................144.4.3 Selecting Particular Columns............................................................................................154.4.4 Sorting Rows...................................................................................................................174.4.5 Date Calculations.............................................................................................................184.4.6 Working with NULL Values...............................................................................................204.4.7 Pattern Matching..............................................................................................................214.4.8 Counting Rows................................................................................................................244.4.9 Using More Than one Table.............................................................................................26Once you know how to enter SQL statements, you are ready to access a database.Suppose that you have several pets in your home (your menagerie) and you would like to keep track ofvarious types of information about them. You can do so by creating tables to hold your data and loadingthem with the desired information. Then you can answer different sorts of questions about your animals byretrieving data from the tables. This section shows you how to perform the following operations:•Create a database•Create a table•Load data into the table•Retrieve data from the table in various ways•Use multiple tablesThe menagerie database is simple (deliberately), but it is not difficult to think of real-world situationsin which a similar type of database might be used. For example, a database like this could be used bya farmer to keep track of livestock, or by a veterinarian to keep track of patient records. A menageriedistribution containing some of the queries and sample data used in the following sections can beobtained from the MySQL website. It is available in both compressed tar file and Zip formats at https://dev.mysql.com/doc/.Use the SHOW statement to find out what databases currently exist on the server:
�mysql SHOW DATABASES;+----------+| Database |+----------+| mysql || test || tmp |+----------+
Using More Than one Table
27
name
date
type
remark
Whistler
1998-12-09
birthday
First birthday
Load the records like this:
�mysql LOAD DATA LOCAL INFILE 'event.txt' INTO TABLE event;Based on what you have learned from the queries that you have run on the pet table, you should be ableto perform retrievals on the records in the event table; the principles are the same. But when is the eventtable by itself insufficient to answer questions you might ask?Suppose that you want to find out the ages at which each pet had its litters. We saw earlier how tocalculate ages from two dates. The litter date of the mother is in the event table, but to calculate her ageon that date you need her birth date, which is stored in the pet table. This means the query requires bothtables:
�mysql SELECT pet.name, TIMESTAMPDIFF(YEAR,birth,date) AS age, remark FROM pet INNER JOIN event ON pet.name = event.name WHERE event.type = 'litter';+--------+------+-----------------------------+| name | age | remark |+--------+------+-----------------------------+| Fluffy | 2 | 4 kittens, 3 female, 1 male || Buffy | 4 | 5 puppies, 2 female, 3 male || Buffy | 5 | 3 puppies, 3 female |+--------+------+-----------------------------+There are several things to note about this query:•The FROM clause joins two tables because the query needs to pull information from both of them.•When combining (joining) information from multiple tables, you need to specify how records in one tablecan be matched to records in the other. This is easy because they both have a name column. The queryuses an ON clause to match up records in the two tables based on the name values.The query uses an INNER JOIN to combine the tables. An INNER JOIN permits rows from either tableto appear in the result if and only if both tables meet the conditions specified in the ON clause. In thisexample, the ON clause specifies that the name column in the pet table must match the name columnin the event table. If a name appears in one table but not the other, the row will not appear in the resultbecause the condition in the ON clause fails.•Because the name column occurs in both tables, you must be specific about which table you mean whenreferring to the column. This is done by prepending the table name to the column name.You need not have two different tables to perform a join. Sometimes it is useful to join a table to itself, ifyou want to compare records in a table to other records in that same table. For example, to find breedingpairs among your pets, you can join the pet table with itself to produce candidate pairs of live males andfemales of like species:
�mysql SELECT p1.name, p1.sex, p2.name, p2.sex, p1.species FROM pet AS p1 INNER JOIN pet AS p2 ON p1.species = p2.species AND p1.sex = 'f' AND p1.death IS NULL AND p2.sex = 'm' AND p2.death IS NULL;
Using More Than one Table
28
+--------+------+-------+------+---------+| name | sex | name | sex | species |+--------+------+-------+------+---------+| Fluffy | f | Claws | m | cat || Buffy | f | Fang | m | dog |+--------+------+-------+------+---------+In this query, we specify aliases for the table name to refer to the columns and keep straight whichinstance of the table each column reference is associated with.
29
Chapter 5 Getting Information About Databases and TablesWhat if you forget the name of a database or table, or what the structure of a given table is (for example,what its columns are called)? MySQL addresses this problem through several statements that provideinformation about the databases and tables it supports.You have previously seen SHOW DATABASES, which lists the databases managed by the server. To findout which database is currently selected, use the DATABASE() function:
�mysql SELECT DATABASE();+------------+| DATABASE() |+------------+| menagerie |+------------+If you have not yet selected any database, the result is NULL.To find out what tables the default database contains (for example, when you are not sure about the nameof a table), use this statement:
�mysql SHOW TABLES;+---------------------+| Tables_in_menagerie |+---------------------+| event || pet |+---------------------+The name of the column in the output produced by this statement is always Tables_in_db_name, wheredb_name is the name of the database. See SHOW TABLES Syntax, for more information.If you want to find out about the structure of a table, the DESCRIBE statement is useful; it displaysinformation about each of a table's columns:
�mysql DESCRIBE pet;+---------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+| Field | Type | Null | Key | Default | Extra |+---------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+| name | varchar(20) | YES | | NULL | || owner | varchar(20) | YES | | NULL | || species | varchar(20) | YES | | NULL | || sex | char(1) | YES | | NULL | || birth | date | YES | | NULL | || death | date | YES | | NULL | |+---------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+Field indicates the column name, Type is the data type for the column, NULL indicates whether thecolumn can contain NULL values, Key indicates whether the column is indexed, and Default specifies thecolumn's default value. Extra displays special information about columns: If a column was created withthe AUTO_INCREMENT option, the value will be auto_increment rather than empty.DESC is a short form of DESCRIBE. See DESCRIBE Syntax, for more information.You can obtain the CREATE TABLE statement necessary to create an existing table using the SHOWCREATE TABLE statement. See SHOW CREATE TABLE Syntax.If you have indexes on a table, SHOW INDEX FROM tbl_name produces information about them. SeeSHOW INDEX Syntax, for more about this statement.
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31
Chapter 6 Using mysql in Batch ModeIn the previous sections, you used mysql interactively to enter statements and view the results. You canalso run mysql in batch mode. To do this, put the statements you want to run in a file, then tell mysql toread its input from the file:
�shell mysql batch-fileIf you are running mysql under Windows and have some special characters in the file that causeproblems, you can do this:
�C:\ mysql -e "source batch-file"If you need to specify connection parameters on the command line, the command might look like this:
�shell mysql -h host -u user -p batch-fileEnter password: ********When you use mysql this way, you are creating a script file, then executing the script.If you want the script to continue even if some of the statements in it produce errors, you should use the --force command-line option.Why use a script? Here are a few reasons:•If you run a query repeatedly (say, every day or every week), making it a script enables you to avoidretyping it each time you execute it.•You can generate new queries from existing ones that are similar by copying and editing script files.•Batch mode can also be useful while you're developing a query, particularly for multiple-line statementsor multiple-statement sequences. If you make a mistake, you don't have to retype everything. Just edityour script to correct the error, then tell mysql to execute it again.•If you have a query that produces a lot of output, you can run the output through a pager rather thanwatching it scroll off the top of your screen:
�shell mysql batch-file | more•You can catch the output in a file for further processing:
�shell mysql batch-file&#x 000; mysql.out•You can distribute your script to other people so that they can also run the statements.•Some situations do not allow for interactive use, for example, when you run a query from a cron job. Inthis case, you must use batch mode.The default output format is different (more concise) when you run mysql in batch mode than when youuse it interactively. For example, the output of SELECT DISTINCT species FROM pet looks like thiswhen mysql is run interactively:
+---------+
32
| species |+---------+| bird || cat || dog || hamster || snake |+---------+In batch mode, the output looks like this instead:
speciesbirdcatdoghamstersnakeIf you want to get the interactive output format in batch mode, use mysql -t. To echo to the output thestatements that are executed, use mysql -v.You can also use scripts from the mysql prompt by using the source command or \. command:
�mysql source filename;�mysql \. filenameSee Executing SQL Statements from a Text File, for more information.
The Row Holding the Maximum of a Certain Column
34
SELECT MAX(article) AS article FROM shop;+---------+| article |+---------+| 4 |+---------+7.2 The Row Holding the Maximum of a Certain ColumnTask: Find the number, dealer, and price of the most expensive article.This is easily done with a subquery:
SELECT article, dealer, priceFROM shopWHERE price=(SELECT MAX(price) FROM shop);+---------+--------+-------+| article | dealer | price |+---------+--------+-------+| 0004 | D | 19.95 |+---------+--------+-------+Other solutions are to use a LEFT JOIN or to sort all rows descending by price and get only the first rowusing the MySQL-specific LIMIT clause:
SELECT s1.article, s1.dealer, s1.priceFROM shop s1LEFT JOIN shop s2 ON s1.price WHERE s2.article IS NULL;SELECT article, dealer, priceFROM shopORDER BY price DESCLIMIT 1;
Note
If there were several most expensive articles, each with a price of 19.95, the LIMITsolution would show only one of them.7.3 Maximum of Column per GroupTask: Find the highest price per article.
SELECT article, MAX(price) AS priceFROM shopGROUP BY articleORDER BY article;+---------+-------+| article | price |+---------+-------+| 0001 | 3.99 || 0002 | 10.99 || 0003 | 1.69 || 0004 | 19.95 |+---------+-------+7.4 The Rows Holding the Group-wise Maximum of a Certain ColumnTask: For each article, find the dealer or dealers with the most expensive price.
Using User-Defined Variables
35
This problem can be solved with a subquery like this one:
SELECT article, dealer, priceFROM shop s1WHERE price=(SELECT MAX(s2.price) FROM shop s2 WHERE s1.article = s2.article)ORDER BY article;+---------+--------+-------+| article | dealer | price |+---------+--------+-------+| 0001 | B | 3.99 || 0002 | A | 10.99 || 0003 | C | 1.69 || 0004 | D | 19.95 |+---------+--------+-------+The preceding example uses a correlated subquery, which can be inefficient (see Correlated Subqueries).Other possibilities for solving the problem are to use an uncorrelated subquery in the FROM clause or aLEFT JOIN.Uncorrelated subquery:
SELECT s1.article, dealer, s1.priceFROM shop s1JOIN ( SELECT article, MAX(price) AS price FROM shop GROUP BY article) AS s2 ON s1.article = s2.article AND s1.price = s2.priceORDER BY article;LEFT JOIN:
SELECT s1.article, s1.dealer, s1.priceFROM shop s1LEFT JOIN shop s2 ON s1.article = s2.article AND s1.price WHERE s2.article IS NULLORDER BY s1.article;The LEFT JOIN works on the basis that when s1.price is at its maximum value, there is no s2.pricewith a greater value and thus the corresponding s2.article value is NULL. See JOIN Syntax.7.5 Using User-Defined VariablesYou can employ MySQL user variables to remember results without having to store them in temporaryvariables in the client. (See User-Defined Variables.)For example, to find the articles with the highest and lowest price you can do this:
�mysql SELECT @min_price:=MIN(price),@max_price:=MAX(price) FROM shop;�mysql SELECT * FROM shop WHERE [email protected]_price OR [email protected]_price;+---------+--------+-------+| article | dealer | price |+---------+--------+-------+| 0003 | D | 1.25 || 0004 | D | 19.95 |+---------+--------+-------+
Using Foreign Keys
36
Note
It is also possible to store the name of a database object such as a table or acolumn in a user variable and then to use this variable in an SQL statement;however, this requires the use of a prepared statement. See Prepared SQLStatement Syntax, for more information.7.6 Using Foreign KeysIn MySQL, InnoDB tables support checking of foreign key constraints. See The InnoDB Storage Engine,and Foreign Key Differences.A foreign key constraint is not required merely to join two tables. For storage engines other than InnoDB,it is possible when defining a column to use a REFERENCES tbl_name(col_name) clause, which hasno actual effect, and serves only as a memo or comment to you that the column which you are currentlydefining is intended to refer to a column in another table. It is extremely important to realize when using thissyntax that:•MySQL does not perform any sort of check to make sure that col_name actually exists in tbl_name (oreven that tbl_name itself exists).•MySQL does not perform any sort of action on tbl_name such as deleting rows in response to actionstaken on rows in the table which you are defining; in other words, this syntax induces no ON DELETE orON UPDATE behavior whatsoever. (Although you can write an ON DELETE or ON UPDATE clause as partof the REFERENCES clause, it is also ignored.)•This syntax creates a column; it does not create any sort of index or key.You can use a column so created as a join column, as shown here:
CREATE TABLE person ( id SMALLINT UNSIGNED NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT, name CHAR(60) NOT NULL, PRIMARY KEY (id));CREATE TABLE shirt ( id SMALLINT UNSIGNED NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT, style ENUM('t-shirt', 'polo', 'dress') NOT NULL, color ENUM('red', 'blue', 'orange', 'white', 'black') NOT NULL, owner SMALLINT UNSIGNED NOT NULL REFERENCES person(id), PRIMARY KEY (id));INSERT INTO person VALUES (NULL, 'Antonio Paz');SELECT @last := LAST_INSERT_ID();INSERT INTO shirt VALUES(NULL, 'polo', 'blue', @last),(NULL, 'dress', 'white', @last),(NULL, 't-shirt', 'blue', @last);INSERT INTO person VALUES (NULL, 'Lilliana Angelovska');SELECT @last := LAST_INSERT_ID();INSERT INTO shirt VALUES(NULL, 'dress', 'orange', @last),(NULL, 'polo', 'red', @last),(NULL, 'dress', 'blue', @last),(NULL, 't-shirt', 'white', @last);SELECT * FROM person;+----+---------------------+| id | name |+----+---------------------+| 1 | Antonio Paz |
Searching on Two Keys
37
| 2 | Lilliana Angelovska |+----+---------------------+SELECT * FROM shirt;+----+---------+--------+-------+| id | style | color | owner |+----+---------+--------+-------+| 1 | polo | blue | 1 || 2 | dress | white | 1 || 3 | t-shirt | blue | 1 || 4 | dress | orange | 2 || 5 | polo | red | 2 || 6 | dress | blue | 2 || 7 | t-shirt | white | 2 |+----+---------+--------+-------+SELECT s.* FROM person p INNER JOIN shirt s ON s.owner = p.id WHERE p.name LIKE 'Lilliana%'� AND s.color +----+-------+--------+-------+| id | style | color | owner |+----+-------+--------+-------+| 4 | dress | orange | 2 || 5 | polo | red | 2 || 6 | dress | blue | 2 |+----+-------+--------+-------+When used in this fashion, the REFERENCES clause is not displayed in the output of SHOW CREATE TABLEor DESCRIBE:
SHOW CREATE TABLE shirt\G*************************** 1. row ***************************Table: shirtCreate Table: CREATE TABLE `shirt` (`id` smallint(5) unsigned NOT NULL auto_increment,`style` enum('t-shirt','polo','dress') NOT NULL,`color` enum('red','blue','orange','white','black') NOT NULL,`owner` smallint(5) unsigned NOT NULL,PRIMARY KEY (`id`)) ENGINE=MyISAM DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1The use of REFERENCES in this way as a comment or “reminder” in a column definition works with MyISAMtables.7.7 Searching on Two KeysAn OR using a single key is well optimized, as is the handling of AND.The one tricky case is that of searching on two different keys combined with OR:
SELECT field1_index, field2_index FROM test_tableWHERE field1_index = '1' OR field2_index = '1'This case is optimized. See Index Merge Optimization.You can also solve the problem efficiently by using a UNION that combines the output of two separateSELECT statements. See UNION Syntax.Each SELECT searches only one key and can be optimized:
SELECT field1_index, field2_index
Calculating Visits Per Day
38
FROM test_table WHERE field1_index = '1'UNIONSELECT field1_index, field2_index FROM test_table WHERE field2_index = '1';7.8 Calculating Visits Per DayThe following example shows how you can use the bit group functions to calculate the number of days permonth a user has visited a Web page.
CREATE TABLE t1 (year YEAR(4), month INT UNSIGNED, day INT UNSIGNED);INSERT INTO t1 VALUES(2000,1,1),(2000,1,20),(2000,1,30),(2000,2,2), (2000,2,23),(2000,2,23);The example table contains year-month-day values representing visits by users to the page. To determinehow many different days in each month these visits occur, use this query:
SELECT year,month,BIT_COUNT(BIT_OR(1)) GROUP BY year,month;Which returns:
+------+-------+------+| year | month | days |+------+-------+------+| 2000 | 1 | 3 || 2000 | 2 | 2 |+------+-------+------+The query calculates how many different days appear in the table for each year/month combination, withautomatic removal of duplicate entries.7.9 Using AUTO_INCREMENTThe AUTO_INCREMENT attribute can be used to generate a unique identity for new rows:
CREATE TABLE animals ( id MEDIUMINT NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT, name CHAR(30) NOT NULL, PRIMARY KEY (id));INSERT INTO animals (name) VALUES ('dog'),('cat'),('penguin'), ('lax'),('whale'),('ostrich');SELECT * FROM animals;Which returns:
+----+---------+| id | name |+----+---------+| 1 | dog || 2 | cat || 3 | penguin || 4 | lax || 5 | whale |
33
Chapter 7 Examples of Common QueriesTable of Contents7.1 The Maximum Value for a Column..............................................................................................337.2 The Row Holding the Maximum of a Certain Column...................................................................347.3 Maximum of Column per Group..................................................................................................347.4 The Rows Holding the Group-wise Maximum of a Certain Column................................................347.5 Using User-Defined Variables.....................................................................................................357.6 Using Foreign Keys....................................................................................................................367.7 Searching on Two Keys..............................................................................................................377.8 Calculating Visits Per Day...........................................................................................................387.9 Using AUTO_INCREMENT.........................................................................................................38Here are examples of how to solve some common problems with MySQL.Some of the examples use the table shop to hold the price of each article (item number) for certain traders(dealers). Supposing that each trader has a single fixed price per article, then (article, dealer) is aprimary key for the records.Start the command-line tool mysql and select a database:
�shell mysql your-database-nameTo create and populate the example table, use these statements:
CREATE TABLE shop ( article INT UNSIGNED DEFAULT '0000' NOT NULL, dealer CHAR(20) DEFAULT '' NOT NULL, price DECIMAL(16,2) DEFAULT '0.00' NOT NULL, PRIMARY KEY(article, dealer));INSERT INTO shop VALUES (1,'A',3.45),(1,'B',3.99),(2,'A',10.99),(3,'B',1.45), (3,'C',1.69),(3,'D',1.25),(4,'D',19.95);After issuing the statements, the table should have the following contents:
SELECT * FROM shop ORDER BY article;+---------+--------+-------+| article | dealer | price |+---------+--------+-------+| 1 | A | 3.45 || 1 | B | 3.99 || 2 | A | 10.99 || 3 | B | 1.45 || 3 | C | 1.69 || 3 | D | 1.25 || 4 | D | 19.95 |+---------+--------+-------+7.1 The Maximum Value for a Column“What is the highest item number?”
Using AUTO_INCREMENT
39
| 6 | ostrich |+----+---------+No value was specified for the AUTO_INCREMENT column, so MySQL assigned sequence numbersautomatically. You can also explicitly assign 0 to the column to generate sequence numbers, unless theNO_AUTO_VALUE_ON_ZERO SQL mode is enabled. For example:
INSERT INTO animals (id,name) VALUES(0,'groundhog');If the column is declared NOT NULL, it is also possible to assign NULL to the column to generate sequencenumbers. For example:
INSERT INTO animals (id,name) VALUES(NULL,'squirrel');When you insert any other value into an AUTO_INCREMENT column, the column is set to that value andthe sequence is reset so that the next automatically generated value follows sequentially from the largestcolumn value. For example:
INSERT INTO animals (id,name) VALUES(100,'rabbit');INSERT INTO animals (id,name) VALUES(NULL,'mouse');SELECT * FROM animals;+-----+-----------+| id | name |+-----+-----------+| 1 | dog || 2 | cat || 3 | penguin || 4 | lax || 5 | whale || 6 | ostrich || 7 | groundhog || 8 | squirrel || 100 | rabbit || 101 | mouse |+-----+-----------+Updating an existing AUTO_INCREMENT column value in an InnoDB table does not reset theAUTO_INCREMENT sequence as it does for MyISAM and NDB tables.You can retrieve the most recent automatically generated AUTO_INCREMENT value with theLAST_INSERT_ID() SQL function or the mysql_insert_id() C API function. These functions areconnection-specific, so their return values are not affected by another connection which is also performinginserts.Use the smallest integer data type for the AUTO_INCREMENT column that is large enough to hold themaximum sequence value you will need. When the column reaches the upper limit of the data type, thenext attempt to generate a sequence number fails. Use the UNSIGNED attribute if possible to allow agreater range. For example, if you use TINYINT, the maximum permissible sequence number is 127. ForTINYINT UNSIGNED, the maximum is 255. See Integer Types (Exact Value) - INTEGER, INT, SMALLINT,TINYINT, MEDIUMINT, BIGINT for the ranges of all the integer types.
Note
For a multiple-row insert, LAST_INSERT_ID() and mysql_insert_id() actuallyreturn the AUTO_INCREMENT key from the first of the inserted rows. This enablesmultiple-row inserts to be reproduced correctly on other servers in a replicationsetup.
InnoDB Notes
40
To start with an AUTO_INCREMENT value other than 1, set that value with CREATE TABLE or ALTERTABLE, like this:
�mysql ALTER TABLE tbl AUTO_INCREMENT = 100;InnoDB NotesFor information about AUTO_INCREMENT usage specific to InnoDB, see AUTO_INCREMENT Handling inInnoDB.MyISAM Notes•For MyISAM tables, you can specify AUTO_INCREMENT on a secondary column in a multiple-column index. In this case, the generated value for the AUTO_INCREMENT column is calculated asMAX(auto_increment_column) + 1 WHERE prefix=given-prefix. This is useful when youwant to put data into ordered groups.
CREATE TABLE animals ( grp ENUM('fish','mammal','bird') NOT NULL, id MEDIUMINT NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT, name CHAR(30) NOT NULL, PRIMARY KEY (grp,id)) ENGINE=MyISAM;INSERT INTO animals (grp,name) VALUES ('mammal','dog'),('mammal','cat'), ('bird','penguin'),('fish','lax'),('mammal','whale'), ('bird','ostrich');SELECT * FROM animals ORDER BY grp,id;Which returns:
+--------+----+---------+| grp | id | name |+--------+----+---------+| fish | 1 | lax || mammal | 1 | dog || mammal | 2 | cat || mammal | 3 | whale || bird | 1 | penguin || bird | 2 | ostrich |+--------+----+---------+In this case (when the AUTO_INCREMENT column is part of a multiple-column index), AUTO_INCREMENTvalues are reused if you delete the row with the biggest AUTO_INCREMENT value in any group. Thishappens even for MyISAM tables, for which AUTO_INCREMENT values normally are not reused.•If the AUTO_INCREMENT column is part of multiple indexes, MySQL generates sequence values usingthe index that begins with the AUTO_INCREMENT column, if there is one. For example, if the animalstable contained indexes PRIMARY KEY (grp, id) and INDEX (id), MySQL would ignore thePRIMARY KEY for generating sequence values. As a result, the table would contain a single sequence,not a sequence per grp value.Further ReadingMore information about AUTO_INCREMENT is available here:•How to assign the AUTO_INCREMENT attribute to a column: CREATE TABLE Syntax, and ALTERTABLE Syntax.
Further Reading
41
•How AUTO_INCREMENT behaves depending on the NO_AUTO_VALUE_ON_ZERO SQL mode: ServerSQL Modes.•How to use the LAST_INSERT_ID() function to find the row that contains the most recentAUTO_INCREMENT value: Information Functions.•Setting the AUTO_INCREMENT value to be used: Server System Variables.•AUTO_INCREMENT Handling in InnoDB•AUTO_INCREMENT and replication: Replication and AUTO_INCREMENT.•Server-system variables related to AUTO_INCREMENT (auto_increment_increment andauto_increment_offset) that can be used for replication: Server System Variables.
42
43
Chapter 8 Using MySQL with ApacheThere are programs that let you authenticate your users from a MySQL database and also let you writeyour log files into a MySQL table.You can change the Apache logging format to be easily readable by MySQL by putting the following intothe Apache configuration file:
LogFormat \� "\"%h\",%{%Y%m%d%H%M%S}t,%s,\"%b\",\"%{Content-Type}o\", \ \"%U\",\"%{Referer}i\",\"%{User-Agent}i\""To load a log file in that format into MySQL, you can use a statement something like this:
LOAD DATA INFILE '/local/access_log' INTO TABLE tbl_nameFIELDS TERMINATED BY ',' OPTIONALLY ENCLOSED BY '"' ESCAPED BY '\\'The named table should be created to have columns that correspond to those that the LogFormat linewrites to the log file.
iii
Table of ContentsPreface and Legal Notices..................................................................................................................v1 Tutorial...........................................................................................................................................12 Connecting to and Disconnecting from the Server............................................................................33 Entering Queries.............................................................................................................................54 Creating and Using a Database.......................................................................................................94.1 Creating and Selecting a Database.....................................................................................104.2 Creating a Table................................................................................................................114.3 Loading Data into a Table..................................................................................................124.4 Retrieving Information from a Table.....................................................................................134.4.1 Selecting All Data....................................................................................................144.4.2 Selecting Particular Rows.........................................................................................144.4.3 Selecting Particular Columns....................................................................................154.4.4 Sorting Rows...........................................................................................................174.4.5 Date Calculations.....................................................................................................184.4.6 Working with NULL Values.......................................................................................204.4.7 Pattern Matching......................................................................................................214.4.8 Counting Rows........................................................................................................244.4.9 Using More Than one Table.....................................................................................265 Getting Information About Databases and Tables...........................................................................296 Using mysql in Batch Mode...........................................................................................................317 Examples of Common Queries......................................................................................................337.1 The Maximum Value for a Column......................................................................................337.2 The Row Holding the Maximum of a Certain Column...........................................................347.3 Maximum of Column per Group..........................................................................................347.4 The Rows Holding the Group-wise Maximum of a Certain Column........................................347.5 Using User-Defined Variables.............................................................................................357.6 Using Foreign Keys............................................................................................................367.7 Searching on Two Keys......................................................................................................377.8 Calculating Visits Per Day...................................................................................................387.9 Using AUTO_INCREMENT.................................................................................................388 Using MySQL with Apache............................................................................................................43
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