Trait Analysis the Tarahumara Indians and Mestizos the

Trait Analysis of the Dentition of the Tarahumara Indians and Mestizos of the Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico * RICHARD G. SNYDER,’ ALBERT A. DAHLBERG? CLYDE C. SNOW AND THELMA DAHLBERG 2 Department of Anthropology and Zoller Memorial Dental Clinic, University of Chicago, Illinois; and 3 Civil Aeromedical Institute, Federal Aviation Administration, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

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the Sierra Madre Chicago, Illinois; Civil Aeromedical Aviation Administration, Oklahoma
the intensive study still re- some tribes cursory glance pologist. One the Tara- inhabit the Madre Occidental Chihuahua and northern Sinaloa. Forbidding geography coupled with their own with outsiders, many features American Southwest which they live extent and straddles the north-central segment Sierra Madre and the Fuerte which available archaeological evidence their present habitat for regions: uplands with elevations occasional peaks Fuerte drainage which may whose floors support a tropical biota. and pleasant. on the uplands is ter. Rainfall is scanty on areas and tends to either upland summers (Zingg, where they harvest their to the spend the winter comparative comfort. this general area. This pecially valid their diet, consists largely Indian corn stone ground processed to prepare such form a nourishing gruel, principal dietary item well over corn preparations other domesticated particularly bean and squash, form diet is foods comprised wide variety including deer, coati, badgers, otter, cary and even skunks, hummingbirds, to say the Sierra walks, flies, swims the Tarahumara stewpot. Although kept sheep and cattle the Spanish the seventeenth animals are rarely more detailed description food economy, excellent monograph summary, the Tara- based on corn-bean-squash triad supplemented intensive exploitation and animal preparation and content, American Southwest. this standpoint, the
the anthropologist dead populations this region. the degree some workers the age Southwestern skeletal populations could least partially wear among present- mixed-bloods, or Spanish settlers the sixteenth century. and, often in rural the distinction more along cultural and ancestry consider themselves, they speak Spanish-derived social, political religious affairs the community However, while the Sierra usually displays same time, lighter pigmentation, tendency towards or curly more aquiline facial features generally serve the demographic the most blendings which occurred migration into the occurred between fact that exist, irregular unions are sanctions against them the strongly-held sexual intercourse the development venereal infection partner. Thus may be considered breeding populations humara, is the earlier other, the is the product ish and Indian the most few generations This report is upon the study the dentitions ranging from age. Mestizo refers to viduals one or both “white,” “Spanish,” or “Mes- other mea- these subjects Exceptions consisted showing some itary patterns and anomalies who live m altitude. impression powder poured with white albastone. rigidly controlled additional examination or impressions were desired child could quickly located all cooperated due to the assistance was kept was taken the mandibular difference between numbers from show more patterns for each mandibular be expected
molar teeth cusps with molar teeth, striking sexual is apparent for advanced cuspal the males. molars, the more reduced patterns than greater frequency malcs. Although molar teeth, male). Thus, thc second per- more available for these two groups. maxillary molar both groups were 4-cusped, numbers and Tarahumara and was shown sexes show more reduced the mandibular fewer cusps occurs tooth, however, maxillary molar the mandibular millimeter as as Tarahumara the number, mean,
Maxillary molar for each Sample size varies due the fewer early age categories. molars exam- ined, there were only ten male Measurements were the authors. buccolingual crown male and for all molar teeth studied larger mandib- females had mesiodistal crown for dm2 same as exceeding both were exceeded both the Mesiodistal crown di- to be both groups. had larger lary buccolingual crown had larger for both crown diameter larger for molar teeth most diagnostic was the first as mean and man- single exception lar crown diameters are tabulated figure provides the left and teeth. These measurements are similar
Mandibular molar buccolingual crown diameters Mandibular molar mesiodistal crown diameter buccolingual crown to be only noted the were some
AND MESTIZO DENTITION Maxillary molar buccolingual crown diameters Tarahumara and mesiodistal crown diameters Tarahumara and tistically significant intra-group cusp which generally occurs the anterior mesial aspect the lingual the maxillary perma- molars. The a particular
A. A. Crown diameters deciduous and 9.49 11.29 10.89 Tarahumara Maxillary 11.39 11.39 10.73 11.54 9.87 9.37 10.82 10.93 8.47 8.94 10.19 10.30 9.86 10.47 11.53 11.48 6.95 7.67 11.42 10.13 values for right and teeth combined. the anterior separating the four main “lobular,” “ridged,” the terms “slight tubercle” respectively. Jor- a three term cation “furrow” fissure or the lingual surface the mesial half is more pronounced the small authors have found a three description “cusp,” studies there may some question categories recognized anomaly have been noted, on other classifications they have not been the present study, effort was light on the penetrance and the surface which these normally occur. was suspected sometimes occurred. classification used a pit furrow interrupting tinuity (f): eminence without a small cusp setting it (c’), to large cusp the area concordance, sexual The dental casts cordance with the scale defined above. cusp within individuals the sam- males to expression was sub-groups according side, sex, expression was for each a frequency expression was weight along frequency with expression occurs within a particu- The products are summed total divided teeth examined The result the relative the site cusp on distinguished from the which courses the mesial marginal occlusal surface and on the mesial surface.
MESTIZO DENTITION 17 14 example demonstrates the this index 5 5 (combined) are termine whether differences occurred Chi-square were computed were significantly differ- tooth groups showing cordingly, both sides were combined was computed bined side the factors race, and For Carabelli's difference was between sexes the second deciduous be noted the sample for the
A. A. second deciduous (dm') was signif- probability level, and for the first probability level. been regarded trait for indeed been re- the maximum penetrance, but high frequency intermediate penetrance. The population may also total frequencies the alleles the cusps the cusps on the were obtained the case protostylid. For comparison the uninterrupted surface a pit, wrinkle or undefined design without a delineating small but positive elevation the gingival to a the proto- were computed manner as for right tooth group (e.g. second deciduous permanent molar) seen, this results straight-line increase dm2 for show slightly demonstrate greater and much The Tarahumara ern Chihuahua, which serve new approach the den- Dental casts were obtained both sexes, both deciduous cusp patterns and numbers, and odontometrics were cordance were numbers from the second deciduous molar through the showing more reduced tooth group. The maxillary however, show The male mesiodistal crown exceeded the and mandibular
AND MESTIZO DENTITION Protostylid. Frequencies, 9 2 2 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 (except for most diagnostic tooth recent cuspal patterns, and do the males. Statistically sig- nificant sexual dimorphism also demon- strated for the second Greater sexual shown between dimorphism was shown significant differences were between sexes or between left and for each tooth group ever, while both a straight-line the protostylid were significant differences between these groups, with children having highest for dmz and This study indicates dental traits, even though both the cusp appear such as cusp are exam- based upon the entire range
showing relative trait the may be generally been racial trait for on the this trait range from lation studies. surprising finding second deciduous female and second deciduous molar. discordance was second deciduous second deciduous more discrete should be applied to other casts and previous American Indian dental lec tions. sisters and others sion, and Reverends Luis teach their space-age contemporaries. LITERATURE CITED southern Chihuahua. physiological observations endurance runners. Chicago Press. Indian. The Indian. The common morphotrophic fac- western United States Smithsonian Institution, Washington, Phys. Anthrop., tion: a description comparative anatomical Acta Odont. cans and Indians and Seidel, Wien. southern Chihuahua. Contributions, Uni- The genuine spurious values

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