RESEARCH N Use of organic and inorganic fertilization in

The molasses play an important role in shrimp farming, since it has been widely used as carbon source for denitrification, anaerobic fermentation, and aerobic waste conversion (Samocha et al. 2007). On another hand, natural food sources may also be increased by inorganic fertilization, contributing more than 50% of the nutrition of Litopenaeus


Texto en PDF


681
Vol. 51, Nº 3, 2016
Revista de Biología Marina y Oceanografía
Revista de Biología Marina y Oceanografía
Vol. 51, Nº3: 681-687, diciembre 2016
R
ESEARCH
N
OTE
Use of organic and inorganic fertilization in zero-
discharge tanks and ponds and its effects on
plankton and shrimp
Litopenaeus
vannamei
performance
Uso de fertilización orgánica e inorgánica en
tanques y estanques con cero
recambio de agua y sus efectos en el plancton
y desempeño productivo
del camarón
Litopenaeus vannamei
Héctor M. Esparza-Leal
1*
, Jesús T. Ponce-Palafox
2
, Guillermo F.
Lara-Anguiano
3
, Wenceslao Valenzuela-Quiñónez
1
, Píndaro
Álvarez-Ruíz
1
and Ely S. López-Álvarez
1
1
Instituto Politécnico Nacional-CIIDIR Unidad Sinaloa, Boulevard Juan de Dios Bátiz Paredes # 250, Guasave, Sinaloa 81101,
México.*Corresponding author: [email protected]
2
Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit, CENITT-CBAP, Laboratorio de Bioingeniería Costera, Escuela Nacional de Ingeniería Pesquera,
Ciudad de la Cultura Amado Nervo, Tepic, Nayarit 62155, México
3
Maestría en Recursos Naturales y Medio Ambiente Program, IPN-CIIDIR Unidad Sinaloa, Boulevard Juan de Dios Bátiz Paredes # 250,
Guasave, Sinaloa 81101, México
Abstract
.- The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of organic (molasses) and inorganic (Nutrilake
®
) fertilization on
plankton, water quality, and shrimp
Litopenaeus vannamei
performance reared in zero-discharge tanks and ponds. The findings
showed that in tanks, the organic fertilization induced highest survival and production, and low total ammonia-N concentration;
however, this effect was not observed in the ponds. In both tanks and ponds, the inorganic fertilization increased nitrogen levels.
The phytoplankton abundance increased in both tanks/ponds with the fertilization treatments. Shrimp production in the tanks
and ponds fertilized almost doubled compared with unfertilized treatments.
Key words
:
Litopenaeus vannamei
, fertilization, plankton, production
I
NTRODUCTION
To mitigate the environmental impact of effluent discharge and
to prevent the introduction of contaminants and pathogens into
the water supply, some shrimp farmers have evolved from open
systems with frequent water discharge, to closed systems with
limited water discharge. The main problem with closed systems
is rapid eutrophication, which could increases the nutrient
concentrations to unsuitable levels for shrimp farming (Thakur
& Lin 2003). However, some authors report that shrimp cultures
without water exchange, might be maintained by growing
heterotrophic bacteria and plankton using carbon or nitrate
compounds to boost the elimination of waste (Boyd 1997,
Samocha
et al.
2007).
The addition of carbon compounds to shrimp pond waters
can stimulate ammonia uptake by heterotrophic bacteria, in
marine water (Wheeler & Kirchman 1986, Samocha
et al.
2007), and provide single-cell sources of protein (Avnimelech
et al
. 1989). The molasses play an important role in shrimp
farming, since it has been widely used as carbon source for
denitrification, anaerobic fermentation, and aerobic waste
conversion (Samocha
et al
. 2007). On another hand, natural
food sources may also be increased by inorganic fertilization,
contributing more than 50% of the nutrition of
Litopenaeus
vannamei
(Janeo
et al
. 2009). Therefore, the fertilization with
Nutrilake
®
(also known as Chilean saltpeter) in shrimp ponds
could have several environmental and economic benefits,
because the Nutrilake
®
is a good source of nitrogen (Boyd
1997). Thus, this study was aimed at determining whether the
addition of carbon or nitrogen via the application of molasses
and Nutrilake
®
, respectively, can reduce environmental ammonia
concentrations, stimulate plankton production, and which
strategy (Nutrilake
®
, molasses or unfertilized) is the most efficient
at improving shrimp production in zero-discharge tanks and
ponds.
M
A
TERIALS

AND
M
ETHODS
S
TUDY

SITE

AND

EXPERIMENT
AL

DESIGN
Two parallel experiments using juvenile
L. vannamei
were
conducted in outdoor tanks and in ponds of a commercial shrimp
682
Esparza-Leal
et al.
Effect of fertilization on plankton and shrimp performance
farm. The fertilization treatments at both sites were as follows:
(1) 0.5 g m
-3
per week of the inorganic fertilizer Nutrilake
®
(14.5-
6-0 inorganic fertilizer with 3.5% SiO
2
and 23% Na; Nutrilake
®
,
SQM Nitratos de Mexico), (2) 1.25 g m
-3
per week of locally
purchased sugar cane-derived molasses, and (3) the unfertilized
control. The amount of molasses added was based on
unpublished data and a report of Avnimelech (1999). Three
tank replicates and two pond replicates were randomly assigned
for each treatment. The study ended at 75 days.
T
ANKS

STUDY
Each treatment (Nutrilake
®
, molasses, and control) was applied
to three rectangular plastic tanks (2 m x 1 m x 1 m). Juvenile
shrimp (4.0 ± 0.3 g) from the on-farm ponds, without evidence
of disease or parasites were reared in each tank at a stocking
density of

20 org m
-2
.
The Nutrilake
®
and molasses were weighed and dissolved
in marine water prior to their addition to each experimental unit.
Each solution was added once per week until study end. The
control treatment was conducted under the same conditions as
the fertilization treatments.
The shrimp were reared under a natural light regime (

14:10
h, light:dark). Each tank was aerated with two airstones.
Throughout the experiment, the tanks were maintained with
zero-water exchange. The shrimp were fed twice daily with
commercial shrimp pellets (35% crude protein; Purina
MR
,
Mexico). The feeding rate was gradually adjusted each week
(16-3% body weight per day), based on feed consumption and
shrimp body weight. The shrimp growth was estimated each
week. After 75 days of culture, the shrimp were harvested, and
the survival rate, production, and feed conversion rate (FCR)
were estimated. Specific growth rate (SGR, % body weight d
-
1
) was calculated from SGR= 100 [(Ln Wf – Ln Wi)]/t, where
Wf= mean weight at the end of the period, Wi= mean weight at
the beginning of the period, and t= time in days of the period.
P
ONDS

STUDY
Six earthen ponds (1 ha each, two replicates per treatment)
were selected for the on-farm experiment. The ponds for the
fertilization (Nutrilake
®
and molasses), and control treatments
were subjected to the usual pre-stocking procedures (Martínez-
Córdova 1999). Throughout the experimental period, the ponds
were maintained with zero-water exchange, except for water
that was added to maintain the water level. Shrimp
L. vannamei
postlarvae (0.014 ± 0.001 g) were purchased from a commercial
hatchery, and stocked in each experimental pond at a density
of 10 org. m
-2
. The pond experiment began after 36 days, when
the shrimp weighed 4.0 ± 0.4 g, and the stocking density was
approximately 9 org. m
-2
. Prior to starting the experiment,
sampling was carried out to estimate the population density of
each pond (Anónimo 1998).
The Nutrilake
®
and molasses were dissolved and applied as
in the tanks study. The control treatment was conducted under
the same conditions as the fertilization treatments. The feed ratio
was gradually adjusted each week (16-3% body weight per
day). Each week was estimated the biomass and average weight.
After 75 day of culture, the shrimp performance was estimated.
P
HYSICOCHEMICAL

P
ARAMETERS

AND

PLANKT
ON

ANAL
YSES
During both experiments (tanks/ponds), the pH, dissolved
oxygen (DO), and temperature were recorded twice a day.
Twice monthly, in each tank and pond was analyzed the nitrite,
nitrate, total ammonia, and phosphate using the methods
described by Strickland & Parsons (1972).
Phytoplankton and zooplankton abundances of each tank
and pond were estimated fortnightly. Phytoplankton abundance
(cells mL
-1
) was estimated using an optical microscopic (Zeiss,
40X) according to the method proposed by Newell & Newell
(2006). The keys and illustrations proposed of Sournia (1978),
Tomas (1997), and Hallegraeff
et al
. (2003) were used as
references for taxa identification. Zooplankton were counted
(ind. L
-1
) and identified using a Sedwick-Rafter chamber
®
(Wildlife Supply Co. Buffalo, NY, USA) on a stereo-microscope
(Zeiss, 10X and 40X). Zooplankton were identified according
to major taxonomic groups with reference keys (Todd
et al
.
1996, Newell & Newell 2006).
S
T
A
TISTICAL

ANAL
YSES
The homoscedasticity of the variances and the normality of all
data were first veried. Treatment effects on physicochemical
parameters and on plankton counts of all study were evaluated
by two-way repeated measures ANOVA with treatment
(separate tanks to ponds) as the main factor, and the sampling
date as the repeated measures factor. Treatment effects on
shrimp performance was evaluated using one-way ANOVA.
Significant differences within tanks or ponds were tested with
Tukey´s multi-comparison test of means. The statistical analyses
were evaluated with a 5% of significance level using
STATISTICA package v6 (StatSoft, Tulsa, OK, USA). The
survival data were transformed (arcsine of the square root)
before analysis (Zar 1996).
R
ESUL
TS

AND
D
ISCUSSION
In both tanks (20 org. m
-2
) and pond (9 org. m
-2
) experiments,
fertilization with Nutrilake
®
and molasses in zero-water exchange
683
Vol. 51, Nº 3, 2016
Revista de Biología Marina y Oceanografía
systems were found to have a positive effect on shrimp survival
and production compared to the unfertilized treatments (Fig.
1). The observation that highest shrimp survival and production
occurred in the molasses-treated tanks is consistent with others
reports (Samocha
et al
. 2007).
Although, not mass mortality of shrimp was observed lower
shrimp survival rates were more evident in the unfertilized groups
of ponds (38 ± 7.6 %; Fig. 1). These findings suggest that both
fertilizers used in this work might be beneficial for shrimp culture,
and in tanks, the fertilization with molasses generates higher
survival as already reported (Samocha
et al
. 2007). The final
mean weight of shrimp obtained in the tanks and ponds
experiments were similar among fertilized groups (

10.2 ± 0.7
and 13.9 ± 0.9 in tanks and ponds, respectively), indicating
that the fertilizers Nutrilake
®
and molasses produced similar
conditions for shrimp growth in stocking densities of 9 and 20
org. m
-2
(Fig. 1). However, the growth rate results obtained in
this study (tanks= 0.45 g week
-1
; ponds= 0.83 g week
-1
) were
lower than other reports (

1.0 g week
-1
; Venero
et al
. 2007,
Ray
et al
. 2011). Although lower final mean weights were
expected in the unfertilized groups, no significant differences
between fertilized and unfertilized groups were observed in the
tank experiment where the initial stocking density was 20 org.
m
-2
(Nutrilake
®
= 9.9 ± 0.5 g, Molasses = 10.5 ± 0.8 g, and
unfertilized (control) = 9.3 ± 0.8 g; Fig. 1]. In the ponds
experiment where the initial stocking density was 9 org. m
-2
a
higher mean weight was observed in the unfertilized group (16.5
± 1.2 g). In both cases, the low survival affected the growth (
40%; Fig. 1; Wang
et al
. 1998), but in the ponds the
combination of lower density and survival impacted more. On
another hand, shrimp growth may have been the result of high
zooplankton abundance that occurred in the unfertilized ponds,
the zooplankton perhaps contributing significantly to shrimp
nutrition and growth, as reported in others studies (Allan
et al
.
1995, Shishehchian & Yussof 1999). In the tanks study, both
fertilized and unfertilized groups exhibited similar zooplankton
abundances (Fig. 2).
In both the tanks and ponds experiments, the dominant
zooplankton taxon was copepod (� 60%), except in the
unfertilized groups of pond study, where the dominant taxa was
rotifer (� 80%; Fig. 2), these results are consistent with previous
reports in relation to biota in low water exchange ponds farming
(Martínez-Córdova
et al
. 2002).
The dominant phytoplankton taxa differed between tanks
(chlorophyte-cyanobacteria) and ponds (cyanobacteria-
diatom) experiments, but these there were not modified by the
treatments (Fig. 3), and the taxa composition in both experiments
Figure 1. Performance parameters (mean ± SE) of shrimp
Litopenaeus
vannamei
reared in tanks (20 org. m
-2
) and ponds (9 org. m
-2
) with
different fertilization treatment. Bars with different superscripts
differ significantly within each study (
P
0.05). The production values
of the tanks were extrapolated from kg m
-2
/ Parámetros productivos
(media ± EE) del camarón
Litopenaeus vannamei
cultivado en tanques
(20 org. m
-2
) y estanques (9 org. m
-2
) con diferente tratamiento de
fertilización. Letras diferentes entre las barras indica diferencias
significativas dentro de cada estudio (
P
0,05). Los valores de
producción de los tanques fueron extrapolados de kg m
-2
684
Esparza-Leal
et al.
Effect of fertilization on plankton and shrimp performance
Figure 2. Zooplankton abundance (mean ± SE) and dominant zooplankton taxa (means) in the shrimp culture water
under different fertilization treatments. The letters that differ among the bars in the first graph of ponds indicate
significant differences (
P
0.05)
/ Abundancia de zooplancton (media ± EE) y taxones dominantes de zooplancton
(promedios) en el agua de cultivo bajo diferentes tratamientos de fertilización. Letras diferentes entre las barras de
la primer gráfica de estanques indica diferencias significativas (
P
0,05)
685
Vol. 51, Nº 3, 2016
Revista de Biología Marina y Oceanografía
Figure 3. Phytoplankton abundance (mean ± SE) and dominant phytoplankton taxa (means) in the shrimp culture
water under different fertilization treatments. The letters that differ among the lines indicate significant differences
(
P
0.05)
/ Abundancia de fitoplancton (media ± EE) y taxones dominantes de fitoplancton (promedios) en el agua de
cultivo bajo diferentes tratamientos de fertilización. Letras diferentes entre las líneas indica diferencias significativas
(
P
0,05)
686
Esparza-Leal
et al.
Effect of fertilization on plankton and shrimp performance
were representative of those found in shrimp culture (Silva-
Campos
et al
. 2009). The highest phytoplankton abundances
occurred in the Nutrilake
®
-treated groups, whereas the lowest
abundances were recorded in the unfertilized groups (Fig. 3),
which was as expected (Boyd 1997).
All of the physicochemical parameters recorded in both tanks
and ponds experiments (Table 1) remained in appropriate levels
for shrimp growth (Chien 1992, Frías-Espericueta
et al
. 1999).
No significant differences in phosphate, temperature, pH, DO,
and salinity were detected within tanks and ponds (Table 1).
However, in both experiments the nitrogen concentrations
differed significantly among treatments (Table 1). As expected,
the addition of Nutrilake
®
resulted in higher concentrations of
nitrite, nitrate and total ammonia (Table 1), but the values
remained within appropriate levels for shrimp (Van Wyk &
Scarpa 1999). In the tanks, the molasses treatment reduced
the total ammonia concentrations toward the experiment end,
consistent with previous reports (Avnimelech 1999, Samocha
et al
. 2007). However, in the ponds experiments the same effect
was not observed.
A
CKNOWLEDGMENTS
This study is part of the projects funded for the Instituto
Politécnico Nacional (SIP-20100145, SIP-20110581).
L
ITERA
TURE

CITED
Allan GL, JM Moriarty & GB Maguire. 1995
. Effect of
pond preparation on production of
Penaeus monodon
Fabricius farming ponds. Aquaculture 130: 329-349.
Anónimo. 1998
. Muestreo poblacional en el cultivo de camarón,
I parte: Uso de atarraya. Boletín Nicovita 3(3): 1-2. http:/
/www.nicovita.com/extranet/Boletines/mar_98_03.pdf�
Avnimelech Y. 1999
. Carbon/nitrogen ratio as a control element
in aquaculture systems. Aquaculture

176: 227-235.
Avnimelech Y, S Mokady & GL Scroeder. 1989
. Circulated
ponds as efficient bioreactors for single cell protein production.
The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture, Bamidgeh 41: 58-66.
Boyd CE. 1997
. Practical aspects of chemistry in pond
aquaculture. Progressive Fish-Culturist 59: 85-93.
Chien YW. 1992
. Water quality requirements and management
for marine shrimp culture. In: Wyban J (ed). Proceedings of
the Special Session on Shrimp Farming, pp. 144-156. Word
Aquaculture Society, Baton Rouge.
Frías-Espericueta MG, H Harfush-Meléndez, JI Osuna-
López & F Páez-Osuna. 1999
. Acute toxicity of ammonia
to juvenile shrimp
Penaeus vannamei
Boone. Bulletin of
Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 62: 646-652.
Hallegraeff GM, DM Anderson & AD Cembella. 2003
.
Manual on harmful marine microalgae, 794 pp. UNESCO,
París.
Janeo RL, VL Corre Jr & T Sakata. 2009
. Water quality
and phytoplankton stability in response to application
frequency of bioaugmentation agent in shrimp ponds.
Aquacultural Engineering 40: 120-125.
Martínez-Córdova L. 1999
. Cultivo de camarones peneidos:
Principios y prácticas, 298 pp. AGT Editor, México.
Martinez-Cordova LR, A Campaña-Torres & MA Porchas-
Cornejo. 2002
. Promotion and contribution of biota in low
water exchange ponds farming blue shrimp
Litopenaeus
stylirostris
(Stimpson). Aquaculture Research 33: 27-32.
Newell GE & RC Newell. 2006
. Marine plankton: a practical
guide, 206 pp. Hutchinson Educational Editions, University
of London, London.
Ray AL, KS Dillon & JM Lotz. 2011
. Water quality dynamics
and shrimp (
Litopenaeus vannamei
) production in intensive,
mesohaline culture systems with two levels of biofloc
management. Aquacultural Engineering 45: 127-136.
Table 1.
Water quality parameters (mean±SE) in the tanks and ponds experiments. Within each study, the values in the same
column with different superscripts differ significantly (
P
0.05)
/ Parámetros de calidad del agua (media±EE) de los tanques y
estanques experimentales. Dentro de cada estudio, los valores en la misma columna con diferente superíndice representa
diferencias significativas (
P
0,05)
687
Vol. 51, Nº 3, 2016
Revista de Biología Marina y Oceanografía
Samocha TM, S Patnaik, M Speed, AM Ali, JM Burger,
RV Almeida, Z Ayub, M Harisanto, A Horowitz & DL
Brock. 2007
. Use of molasses as carbon source in limited
discharge nursery and grow-out systems for
Litopenaeus
vannamei
. Aquacultural Engineering 36: 184-191.
Shishehchian F & FM Yussof. 1999
. Composition and
abundance of macrobenthos in intensive tropical marine
shrimp culture ponds. Journal of the World Aquaculture
Society 30: 128-133.
Silva-Campos S, U Lima-Silva, MZ Tabosa-Lúcio & E de
Souza-Correira. 2009
.

Natural food evaluation and water
quality in zero water exchange culture of
Litopenaeus
vannamei
fertilized with wheat bran. Aquaculture
International 17: 113-124.
Sournia A. 1978
. Phytoplankton manual, 337 pp. UNESCO,
Paris.
Strickland JDH & TH Parsons. 1972
. A practical handbook
of seawater analysis. Bulletin, Fisheries Research Board of
Canada 167: 1-310.
Thakur DP & CK Lin. 2003
. Water quality and nutrient budget
in closed shrimp (
Penaeus monodon
) culture systems.
Aquacultural Engineering 27: 159-176.
Todd CD, MS Laverack & GA Boxshall. 1996
. Coastal
marine zooplankton: A practical guide, 106 pp. Cambridge
University Press, New York.
Tomas CR. 1997
. Identifying marine phytoplankton, 858 pp.
Academic Press, San Diego.
Van Wyk P & J Scarpa. 1999
. Water quality requirements and
management. In: Van Wyck P (ed). Farming marine shrimp
in recirculating freshwater system, pp. 128-129. Florida
Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services,
Tallahasee.
Venero JA, DA Davis & DB Rouse. 2007
. Variable feed
allowance with constant protein input for the pacific white
shrimp
Litopenaeus vannamei
reared under semi-intensive
conditions in tanks and ponds. Aquaculture 269: 490-503.
Wang JQ, D Dong, S Wang & X Tian. 1998
. Experimental
studies on polyculture in closed shrimp ponds. I. Intensive
polyculture of Chinese shrimp (
Penaeus chinensis
) with
tilapia hybrids. Aquaculture 163: 11-27.
Wheeler PA & DL Kirchman. 1986
. Utilization of inorganic
and organic nitrogen by bacteria in marine systems.
Limnology and Oceanography 31: 998-1009.
Zar JH.

1996
. Biostatistical analysis, 663 pp. Prentice Hall,
Englewood Cliffs.
Received 30 October 2015 and accepted 1 July 2016
Editor: Claudia Bustos D.
687
Vol. 51, Nº 3, 2016Revista de Biología Marina y OceanografíaSamocha TM, S Patnaik, M Speed, AM Ali, JM Burger,RV Almeida, Z Ayub, M Harisanto, A Horowitz & DLBrock. 2007. Use of molasses as carbon source in limiteddischarge nursery and grow-out systems for Litopenaeusvannamei. Aquacultural Engineering 36: 184-191.Shishehchian F & FM Yussof. 1999. Composition andabundance of macrobenthos in intensive tropical marineshrimp culture ponds. Journal of the World AquacultureSociety 30: 128-133.Silva-Campos S, U Lima-Silva, MZ Tabosa-Lúcio & E deSouza-Correira. 2009Natural food evaluation and waterquality in zero water exchange culture of Litopenaeusvannamei fertilized with wheat bran. AquacultureInternational 17: 113-124.Sournia A. 1978. Phytoplankton manual, 337 pp. UNESCO,Paris.Strickland JDH & TH Parsons. 1972. A practical handbookof seawater analysis. Bulletin, Fisheries Research Board ofCanada 167: 1-310.Thakur DP & CK Lin. 2003. Water quality and nutrient budgetin closed shrimp (Penaeus monodon) culture systems.Aquacultural Engineering 27: 159-176.Todd CD, MS Laverack & GA Boxshall. 1996. Coastalmarine zooplankton: A practical guide, 106 pp. CambridgeUniversity Press, New York.Tomas CR. 1997. Identifying marine phytoplankton, 858 pp.Academic Press, San Diego.Van Wyk P & J Scarpa. 1999. Water quality requirements andmanagement. In: Van Wyck P (ed). Farming marine shrimpin recirculating freshwater system, pp. 128-129. FloridaDepartment of Agriculture and Consumer Services,Tallahasee.Venero JA, DA Davis & DB Rouse. 2007. Variable feedallowance with constant protein input for the pacific whiteshrimp Litopenaeus vannamei reared under semi-intensiveconditions in tanks and ponds. Aquaculture 269: 490-503.Wang JQ, D Dong, S Wang & X Tian. 1998. Experimentalstudies on polyculture in closed shrimp ponds. I. Intensivepolyculture of Chinese shrimp (Penaeus chinensis) withtilapia hybrids. Aquaculture 163: 11-27.Wheeler PA & DL Kirchman. 1986. Utilization of inorganicand organic nitrogen by bacteria in marine systems.Limnology and Oceanography 31: 998-1009.Zar JH.1996. Biostatistical analysis, 663 pp. Prentice Hall,Englewood Cliffs.
Received 30 October 2015 and accepted 1 July 2016Editor: Claudia Bustos D.
686Esparza-Leal et al.Effect of fertilization on plankton and shrimp performancewere representative of those found in shrimp culture (Silva-Campos et al. 2009). The highest phytoplankton abundancesoccurred in the Nutrilake-treated groups, whereas the lowestabundances were recorded in the unfertilized groups (Fig. 3),which was as expected (Boyd 1997).All of the physicochemical parameters recorded in both tanksand ponds experiments (Table 1) remained in appropriate levelsfor shrimp growth (Chien 1992, Frías-Espericueta et al. 1999).No significant differences in phosphate, temperature, pH, DO,and salinity were detected within tanks and ponds (Table 1).However, in both experiments the nitrogen concentrationsdiffered significantly among treatments (Table 1). As expected,the addition of Nutrilake® resulted in higher concentrations ofnitrite, nitrate and total ammonia (Table 1), but the valuesremained within appropriate levels for shrimp (Van Wyk &Scarpa 1999). In the tanks, the molasses treatment reducedthe total ammonia concentrations toward the experiment end,consistent with previous reports (Avnimelech 1999, Samochaet al. 2007). However, in the ponds experiments the same effectwas not observed.CKNOWLEDGMENTSThis study is part of the projects funded for the InstitutoPolitécnico Nacional (SIP-20100145, SIP-20110581).ITERATURECITEDAllan GL, JM Moriarty & GB Maguire. 1995. Effect ofpond preparation on production of Penaeus monodonFabricius farming ponds. Aquaculture 130: 329-349.Anónimo. 1998. Muestreo poblacional en el cultivo de camarón,I parte: Uso de atarraya. Boletín Nicovita 3(3): 1-2. http://www.nicovita.com/extranet/Boletines/mar_98_03.pdf&#x-300;Avnimelech Y. 1999. Carbon/nitrogen ratio as a control elementin aquaculture systems. Aquaculture176: 227-235.Avnimelech Y, S Mokady & GL Scroeder. 1989. Circulatedponds as efficient bioreactors for single cell protein production.The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture, Bamidgeh 41: 58-66.Boyd CE. 1997. Practical aspects of chemistry in pondaquaculture. Progressive Fish-Culturist 59: 85-93.Chien YW. 1992. Water quality requirements and managementfor marine shrimp culture. In: Wyban J (ed). Proceedings ofthe Special Session on Shrimp Farming, pp. 144-156. WordAquaculture Society, Baton Rouge.Frías-Espericueta MG, H Harfush-Meléndez, JI Osuna-López & F Páez-Osuna. 1999. Acute toxicity of ammoniato juvenile shrimp Penaeus vannamei Boone. Bulletin ofEnvironmental Contamination and Toxicology 62: 646-652.Hallegraeff GM, DM Anderson & AD Cembella. 2003Manual on harmful marine microalgae, 794 pp. UNESCO,París.Janeo RL, VL Corre Jr & T Sakata. 2009. Water qualityand phytoplankton stability in response to applicationfrequency of bioaugmentation agent in shrimp ponds.Aquacultural Engineering 40: 120-125.Martínez-Córdova L. 1999. Cultivo de camarones peneidos:Principios y prácticas, 298 pp. AGT Editor, México.Martinez-Cordova LR, A Campaña-Torres & MA Porchas-Cornejo. 2002. Promotion and contribution of biota in lowwater exchange ponds farming blue shrimp Litopenaeusstylirostris (Stimpson). Aquaculture Research 33: 27-32.Newell GE & RC Newell. 2006. Marine plankton: a practicalguide, 206 pp. Hutchinson Educational Editions, Universityof London, London.Ray AL, KS Dillon & JM Lotz. 2011. Water quality dynamicsand shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) production in intensive,mesohaline culture systems with two levels of bioflocmanagement. Aquacultural Engineering 45: 127-136.Table 1. Water quality parameters (mean±SE) in the tanks and ponds experiments. Within each study, the values in the samecolumn with different superscripts differ significantly (P 0.05) / Parámetros de calidad del agua (media±EE) de los tanques yestanques experimentales. Dentro de cada estudio, los valores en la misma columna con diferente superíndice representadiferencias significativas ( < 0,05)
685
Vol. 51, Nº 3, 2016Revista de Biología Marina y Oceanografía
Figure 3. Phytoplankton abundance (mean ± SE) and dominant phytoplankton taxa (means) in the shrimp culturewater under different fertilization treatments. The letters that differ among the lines indicate significant differences 0.05) / Abundancia de fitoplancton (media ± EE) y taxones dominantes de fitoplancton (promedios) en el agua decultivo bajo diferentes tratamientos de fertilización. Letras diferentes entre las líneas indica diferencias significativas < 0,05)
684Esparza-Leal et al.Effect of fertilization on plankton and shrimp performance
Figure 2. Zooplankton abundance (mean ± SE) and dominant zooplankton taxa (means) in the shrimp culture waterunder different fertilization treatments. The letters that differ among the bars in the first graph of ponds indicatesignificant differences ( 0.05) / Abundancia de zooplancton (media ± EE) y taxones dominantes de zooplancton(promedios) en el agua de cultivo bajo diferentes tratamientos de fertilización. Letras diferentes entre las barras dela primer gráfica de estanques indica diferencias significativas ( < 0,05)
683
Vol. 51, Nº 3, 2016Revista de Biología Marina y Oceanografíasystems were found to have a positive effect on shrimp survivaland production compared to the unfertilized treatments (Fig.1). The observation that highest shrimp survival and productionoccurred in the molasses-treated tanks is consistent with othersreports (Samocha et al. 2007).Although, not mass mortality of shrimp was observed lowershrimp survival rates were more evident in the unfertilized groupsof ponds (38 ± 7.6 %; Fig. 1). These findings suggest that bothfertilizers used in this work might be beneficial for shrimp culture,and in tanks, the fertilization with molasses generates highersurvival as already reported (Samocha et al. 2007). The finalmean weight of shrimp obtained in the tanks and pondsexperiments were similar among fertilized groups ( 10.2 ± 0.7and 13.9 ± 0.9 in tanks and ponds, respectively), indicatingthat the fertilizers Nutrilake and molasses produced similarconditions for shrimp growth in stocking densities of 9 and 20org. m (Fig. 1). However, the growth rate results obtained inthis study (tanks= 0.45 g week; ponds= 0.83 g week) werelower than other reports (1.0 g week; Venero et al. 2007,Ray et al. 2011). Although lower final mean weights wereexpected in the unfertilized groups, no significant differencesbetween fertilized and unfertilized groups were observed in thetank experiment where the initial stocking density was 20 org. (Nutrilake® = 9.9 ± 0.5 g, Molasses = 10.5 ± 0.8 g, andunfertilized (control) = 9.3 ± 0.8 g; Fig. 1]. In the pondsexperiment where the initial stocking density was 9 org. m ahigher mean weight was observed in the unfertilized group (16.5± 1.2 g). In both cases, the low survival affected the growth (40%; Fig. 1; Wang et al. 1998), but in the ponds thecombination of lower density and survival impacted more. Onanother hand, shrimp growth may have been the result of highzooplankton abundance that occurred in the unfertilized ponds,the zooplankton perhaps contributing significantly to shrimpnutrition and growth, as reported in others studies (Allan et al1995, Shishehchian & Yussof 1999). In the tanks study, bothfertilized and unfertilized groups exhibited similar zooplanktonabundances (Fig. 2).In both the tanks and ponds experiments, the dominantzooplankton taxon was copepod (� 60%), except in theunfertilized groups of pond study, where the dominant taxa wasrotifer (� 80%; Fig. 2), these results are consistent with previousreports in relation to biota in low water exchange ponds farming(Martínez-Córdova et al. 2002).The dominant phytoplankton taxa differed between tanks(chlorophyte-cyanobacteria) and ponds (cyanobacteria-diatom) experiments, but these there were not modified by thetreatments (Fig. 3), and the taxa composition in both experiments
Figure 1. Performance parameters (mean ± SE) of shrimp Litopenaeusvannamei reared in tanks (20 org. m-2) and ponds (9 org. m-2) withdifferent fertilization treatment. Bars with different superscriptsdiffer significantly within each study ( 0.05). The production valuesof the tanks were extrapolated from kg m-2 / Parámetros productivos(media ± EE) del camarón Litopenaeus vannamei cultivado en tanques(20 org. m-2) y estanques (9 org. m-2) con diferente tratamiento defertilización. Letras diferentes entre las barras indica diferenciassignificativas dentro de cada estudio ( < 0,05). Los valores deproducción de los tanques fueron extrapolados de kg m-2
682Esparza-Leal et al.Effect of fertilization on plankton and shrimp performancefarm. The fertilization treatments at both sites were as follows:(1) 0.5 g m-3 per week of the inorganic fertilizer Nutrilake (14.5-6-0 inorganic fertilizer with 3.5% SiO and 23% Na; NutrilakeSQM Nitratos de Mexico), (2) 1.25 g mper week of locallypurchased sugar cane-derived molasses, and (3) the unfertilizedcontrol. The amount of molasses added was based onunpublished data and a report of Avnimelech (1999). Threetank replicates and two pond replicates were randomly assignedfor each treatment. The study ended at 75 days.ANKSSTUDYEach treatment (Nutrilake, molasses, and control) was appliedto three rectangular plastic tanks (2 m x 1 m x 1 m). Juvenileshrimp (4.0 ± 0.3 g) from the on-farm ponds, without evidenceof disease or parasites were reared in each tank at a stockingdensity of20 org m-2The Nutrilake and molasses were weighed and dissolvedin marine water prior to their addition to each experimental unit.Each solution was added once per week until study end. Thecontrol treatment was conducted under the same conditions asthe fertilization treatments.The shrimp were reared under a natural light regime ( 14:10h, light:dark). Each tank was aerated with two airstones.Throughout the experiment, the tanks were maintained withzero-water exchange. The shrimp were fed twice daily withcommercial shrimp pellets (35% crude protein; PurinaMRMexico). The feeding rate was gradually adjusted each week(16-3% body weight per day), based on feed consumption andshrimp body weight. The shrimp growth was estimated eachweek. After 75 days of culture, the shrimp were harvested, andthe survival rate, production, and feed conversion rate (FCR)were estimated. Specific growth rate (SGR, % body weight d) was calculated from SGR= 100 [(Ln Wf – Ln Wi)]/t, whereWf= mean weight at the end of the period, Wi= mean weight atthe beginning of the period, and t= time in days of the period.ONDSSTUDYSix earthen ponds (1 ha each, two replicates per treatment)were selected for the on-farm experiment. The ponds for thefertilization (Nutrilake and molasses), and control treatmentswere subjected to the usual pre-stocking procedures (Martínez-Córdova 1999). Throughout the experimental period, the pondswere maintained with zero-water exchange, except for waterthat was added to maintain the water level. Shrimp L. vannameipostlarvae (0.014 ± 0.001 g) were purchased from a commercialhatchery, and stocked in each experimental pond at a densityof 10 org. m-2. The pond experiment began after 36 days, whenthe shrimp weighed 4.0 ± 0.4 g, and the stocking density wasapproximately 9 org. m. Prior to starting the experiment,sampling was carried out to estimate the population density ofeach pond (Anónimo 1998).The Nutrilake and molasses were dissolved and applied asin the tanks study. The control treatment was conducted underthe same conditions as the fertilization treatments. The feed ratiowas gradually adjusted each week (16-3% body weight perday). Each week was estimated the biomass and average weight.After 75 day of culture, the shrimp performance was estimated.HYSICOCHEMICALARAMETERSANDPLANKTONANALYSESDuring both experiments (tanks/ponds), the pH, dissolvedoxygen (DO), and temperature were recorded twice a day.Twice monthly, in each tank and pond was analyzed the nitrite,nitrate, total ammonia, and phosphate using the methodsdescribed by Strickland & Parsons (1972).Phytoplankton and zooplankton abundances of each tankand pond were estimated fortnightly. Phytoplankton abundance(cells mL-1) was estimated using an optical microscopic (Zeiss,40X) according to the method proposed by Newell & Newell(2006). The keys and illustrations proposed of Sournia (1978),Tomas (1997), and Hallegraeff et al. (2003) were used asreferences for taxa identification. Zooplankton were counted(ind. L) and identified using a Sedwick-Rafter chamber(Wildlife Supply Co. Buffalo, NY, USA) on a stereo-microscope(Zeiss, 10X and 40X). Zooplankton were identified accordingto major taxonomic groups with reference keys (Todd et al1996, Newell & Newell 2006).TISTICALANALYSESThe homoscedasticity of the variances and the normality of alldata were first veried. Treatment effects on physicochemicalparameters and on plankton counts of all study were evaluatedby two-way repeated measures ANOVA with treatment(separate tanks to ponds) as the main factor, and the samplingdate as the repeated measures factor. Treatment effects onshrimp performance was evaluated using one-way ANOVA.Significant differences within tanks or ponds were tested withTukey´s multi-comparison test of means. The statistical analyseswere evaluated with a 5% of significance level usingSTATISTICA package v6 (StatSoft, Tulsa, OK, USA). Thesurvival data were transformed (arcsine of the square root)before analysis (Zar 1996).ESULTSAND DISCUSSIONIn both tanks (20 org. m-2) and pond (9 org. m) experiments,fertilization with Nutrilake and molasses in zero-water exchange
681
Vol. 51, Nº 3, 2016Revista de Biología Marina y OceanografíaRevista de Biología Marina y OceanografíaVol. 51, Nº3: 681-687, diciembre 2016
ESEARCH NOTEUse of organic and inorganic fertilization in zero-discharge tanks and ponds and its effects on plankton and shrimp Litopenaeusvannamei performanceUso de fertilización orgánica e inorgánica en tanques y estanques con cerorecambio de agua y sus efectos en el plancton y desempeño productivodel camarón Litopenaeus vannameiHéctor M. Esparza-Leal1*, Jesús T. Ponce-Palafox, Guillermo F.Lara-Anguiano, Wenceslao Valenzuela-Quiñónez, PíndaroÁlvarez-Ruíz and Ely S. López-ÁlvarezInstituto Politécnico Nacional-CIIDIR Unidad Sinaloa, Boulevard Juan de Dios Bátiz Paredes # 250, Guasave, Sinaloa 81101,México.*Corresponding author: [email protected] Autónoma de Nayarit, CENITT-CBAP, Laboratorio de Bioingeniería Costera, Escuela Nacional de Ingeniería Pesquera,Ciudad de la Cultura Amado Nervo, Tepic, Nayarit 62155, MéxicoMaestría en Recursos Naturales y Medio Ambiente Program, IPN-CIIDIR Unidad Sinaloa, Boulevard Juan de Dios Bátiz Paredes # 250,Guasave, Sinaloa 81101, MéxicoAbstract.- The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of organic (molasses) and inorganic (Nutrilake) fertilization onplankton, water quality, and shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei performance reared in zero-discharge tanks and ponds. The findingsshowed that in tanks, the organic fertilization induced highest survival and production, and low total ammonia-N concentration;however, this effect was not observed in the ponds. In both tanks and ponds, the inorganic fertilization increased nitrogen levels.The phytoplankton abundance increased in both tanks/ponds with the fertilization treatments. Shrimp production in the tanksand ponds fertilized almost doubled compared with unfertilized treatments.Key words: Litopenaeus vannamei, fertilization, plankton, productionNTRODUCTIONTo mitigate the environmental impact of effluent discharge andto prevent the introduction of contaminants and pathogens intothe water supply, some shrimp farmers have evolved from opensystems with frequent water discharge, to closed systems withlimited water discharge. The main problem with closed systemsis rapid eutrophication, which could increases the nutrientconcentrations to unsuitable levels for shrimp farming (Thakur& Lin 2003). However, some authors report that shrimp cultureswithout water exchange, might be maintained by growingheterotrophic bacteria and plankton using carbon or nitratecompounds to boost the elimination of waste (Boyd 1997,Samocha et al. 2007).The addition of carbon compounds to shrimp pond waterscan stimulate ammonia uptake by heterotrophic bacteria, inmarine water (Wheeler & Kirchman 1986, Samocha et al.2007), and provide single-cell sources of protein (Avnimelechet al. 1989). The molasses play an important role in shrimpfarming, since it has been widely used as carbon source fordenitrification, anaerobic fermentation, and aerobic wasteconversion (Samocha et al. 2007). On another hand, naturalfood sources may also be increased by inorganic fertilization,contributing more than 50% of the nutrition of Litopenaeusvannamei (Janeo et al. 2009). Therefore, the fertilization withNutrilake (also known as Chilean saltpeter) in shrimp pondscould have several environmental and economic benefits,because the Nutrilake is a good source of nitrogen (Boyd1997). Thus, this study was aimed at determining whether theaddition of carbon or nitrogen via the application of molassesand Nutrilake, respectively, can reduce environmental ammoniaconcentrations, stimulate plankton production, and whichstrategy (Nutrilake, molasses or unfertilized) is the most efficientat improving shrimp production in zero-discharge tanks andponds.ATERIALSAND METHODSTUDYSITEANDEXPERIMENTALDESIGNTwo parallel experiments using juvenile L. vannamei wereconducted in outdoor tanks and in ponds of a commercial shrimp

Documentos PDF asociados:

RESEARCH N Use of organic and inorganic fertilization in ...
Essential Organic Chemistry - Pearson
Wade Organic Chemistry - Pearson
Fundamentals of Organic Chemistry, Third Edition (McMurry ...
with research distinction - kb.osu.edu
Kendall’s Tau - Statistical Research
ORIGINAL RESEARCH - atsjournals.org
RESEARCH ARTICLE - scielo.org.co
Feeling Speech on the Arm - research.fb.com
What Makes Clinical Research Ethi cal?
m-m - University of Texas at El Paso Research
Radionics - Kelly Research Tech
Integrating the domains of dentistry and research - ada.org
Nunca me abandones - antonio.ias-research.net
What’s the difference between market research and customer ...
Journal of Business Research - WordPress.com
Chicago (CMS) Research Paper (Bishop)
PROGRESS IN RETINAL AND EYE RESEARCH - Elsevier
How to write a research paper - ERIC
Inter- and Trans-disciplinary Research - A Critical ...
INTRODUCTION TO OPERATIONS RESEARCH Tenth Edition ...
Rocky Mountain Research Station Publications - fs.fed.us
Research Experience for Teachers 2017 - lamar.edu
Ultrastructure of Sarcoma 180l - Cancer Research
Venopunción - St. Jude Children's Research Hospital
Shared learning between two giants of cardiovascular research
La Mitología en el Juego de Pelota - research.famsi.org
Patton, M. (1990). Qualitative evaluation and research ...
BUSINESS LOGISTICS AND SOME RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES Invited ...
Russell Cunningham Memorial Research Program - uab.edu
Research Article Effect of mobilization time by maitland ...
Analysis of the Problems in Language Teachers’ Action Research
ORDO AMORIS AND 4. WORLD-OPENNESS Max-Scheler Research ...
RESEARCH Open Access Extracting psychiatric stressors for ...
Karl Terzaghi Research Collection / Charles F. Ripley ...
SAGE Open Burnout Research: Emergence and January-March ...
Guía Para la Familia - St. Jude Children's Research Hospital
NASA Ames Research Cente7; Moffett Field, CA 94035 ...
MedStar Union Memorial Hospital Orthopaedic Research Manual
ERC Starting Grant Panel 2017 - European Research Council